CAUSATIVE

Causative “have”  or “get”

 

A.    Causative “have” or “get” means a sentence in which a subject asks the object to do the work. In other words, the subject does not do the work. Causative is often used in conversation.

For examples:

1.     We have the mechanic repair our car. From this sentence we may conclude that subject “we” does not repair the car, but it is the object “mechanic” does it. The above sentence has the same meaning with: We get the mechanic to repair our car or We ask the mechanic to repair our car.

2.     The family has someone cut the tree in the yard. This sentence has the same meaning with : The family gets someone to cut the three or The family asks someone to cut the three. From these three sentences we may conclude that the family does not cut the three but someone does  it.

B.     Remember, causative have does not apply infinitive to after the object.  (The manager has his secretary type the document) while causative get does (I get my first son to clean the room). Both causative “have” and “get” have the same meaning.

Take a look at the following sentences.

  1. The old mother has her daughter cook the meal.
  2. The professor has his assistant give tutorial to his 25 post-graduate students.
  3. They get me to turn of the light.
  4. She had me park her car yesterday in department store.
  5. They get me to  phone the suppliers
  6. The manager got me to place a big order two days ago.
  7. My father has me accompany the visitors to station.

C.     Causative “have” or “get” can be in active or in passive form.

Look at the following sentences.

  1. I have Bill kill the snake (Active sentence)
  2. I have the snake killed by Bill (Passive sentence)
  3. They get me to deposit money (Active sentence)
  4. They get money deposited by me (Passive sentence)
  5. She has the servant wash the dishes (Active sentences
  6. She has the dishes washed by the servant (Passive sentences)

D.    Determine which are active and passive sentences

  1. We will have the police arrest the thief.
  2. They will get someone to draw up money from the bank.
  3. She had her clothes ironed by her youngest sister last Friday.
  4.  He has his hair cut by a barbershop.
  5. We got the house built in 2011.
  6.  We have the paper turned in to the lecturer.
  7. They got someone to drive the family car.
  8. We have the door opened by the security.
  9. The doctor gets a nurse to fill the bottle.
  10. The professor has his book published.

 

E.     On Toefl test the passive form might be possible to appear.

1.     We have the topics ______________in seminar.

(A) Discuss

(B) Discussed

(C) Discussing

(D)To discuss

The correct answer is B because it is passive sentence. Passive sentence will use verb III (past participle)

2.      They get a popular actor ________the new products

(A) Promote

(B) To promote

(C) Promoted

(D)Promoting

The correct answer is B, because it is active sentence and using “get”.

3.     The police had the victims ____________last week.

(A) Identify

(B) To identify

(C) Identified

(D)Identifying

what is the correct answer?

4.     The president gets his staff ___________ demonstrators.

(A) Meet

(B) To meet

(C) Met

(D)Meeting

what is the correct answer?

F. Your turn.

1.     We must have the hotel ______________right now.

(A) Booking

(B) Book

(C) Booked

(D)To book

2.     The company gets the package ____________.

(A) Deliver

(B) To deliver

(C) Delivered

(D)delivering

3.     We have the servant____________ our guest.

(A) Serve

(B) To served

(C) Served

(D)To serve

4.     Bob has his secretary invite me to the ceremony. From this sentence we may conclude that:

(A) Bob invites me to attend the ceremony.

(B) Bob invite his secretary to the ceremony.

(C) The secretary invites Bob to the ceremony.

(D)I am not invited by Bob.

5.     The doctor gets his nurse to measure the temperature of my father. From this sentence we may conclude that:

(A) My father is sick.

(B) The doctor cannot measure the temperature.

(C) The nurse measures my father’s temperature.

(D)The nurse has the temperature measured.

6.     We have Susan feed the pets. From this sentence we may conclude that:

(A) Susan has pets

(B) Susan does not like pets

(C) Susan gives food to pets

(D)We are afraid of pets

 

DELIVERY

What is DELIVERY?

In the previous topic, we discussed completely about EFFECTIVE PRESENTATION. There are two essential factors to make an effective presentation. The first one is: What are we going to present? Or what is the topic of our presentation? Moreover, the topic is divided into three main parts. They are : INTRODUCTION, BODY and CONCLUSION. You were also taught the elements of every main part. A good presenter always keeps to the time on presentation. Prior to presentation, s/he tries to know how long s/he is given the time. Then, s/he will  divided the given time on introduction, body and conclusion. The second factor is delivery. Delivery means how are we presenting the topic? An appropriate topic must be followed by a good delivery to create an effective presentation. In addition, most people assume that delivery is more important than the topic itself.

Elements Of Delivery

  1. The first element is what is called eye-contact. It means a good presenter will keep eye-contact to all audiences during presentation. He never turns back the audience and does not focus on the slides only or any other kinds of note. A presenter does not speak to the floor or ceiling. In short, s/he must spent most time by looking at all audiences.
  2. Voice. A good presenter will make sure that every audience can hear his/her voice clearly by speaking loudly. Another point about voice is comfortable speed. Do not speak too fast or slowly on presentation. most presenters speak too fast, because they probably want to stop the presentation as soon as possible. If a presenter does it, the audiences will not be able to grasp all given information. On the other hand, if a presenter speaks too slowly, the audiences will get bored. Therefore, a comfortable speed will help a presenter to deliver information on presentation. For a non-native speaker the comfortable speed is around 90 – 100 words per minute, whereas for a a native speaker it is 110 – 120 words per minutes. However, variety is also needed to make your presentation more effectively.
  3. Posture – Relaxed. If it is possible a good presenter does not stand in one place only. He can move onwards, backwards, right or left sides. Pay attention to your body language so that it will give good impression to the audience.

Further Notes

  1. Be careful about gesturing. If your audiences have similar or higher level than you, gesturing is considered to be impolite.
  2. Do not play your pointer with the audiences.
  3. Every presenter will try to avoid doing any mistakes on presentation especially while taking conclusion, for there is no more chance to improve that mistake. To handle it, he may provide the conclusion in notes.
  4. If you experience stage fright, please do the following tips : take deep breath, relaxation and laughing.

Reading Comprehension 3 For Toefl 2 Section 58

Sometimes mail arrives at the post office, and it is impossible to deliver the mail. Perhaps there is an inadequate or illegible address and no return address. The post office cannot just throw this mail away, so this becomes “dead mail”. This “dead mail” is sent to one of the US. Postal Service’s dead mail offices in Atlanta, New York, Philadelphia, St. Paul, or San Francisco. Seventy-five million pieces of mail can end up in the dead mail office in one year.

The staff of the dead mail offices have a variety of ways to deal with all of these pierces of dead mail. First of all, they look for clues that can help the deliver the mail; they open packages in the hope that something inside will show where the package came from or is going to. Dead mail will also be listed on a computer so that people can call in and check to see if a missing item is there.

However, all of this mail cannot simply be stored forever; there is just too much of it. When a lot of dead mail has piled up, the dead mail offices hold public auctions. Every three months, the public is invited in and bins containing items found in dead mail packages are sold to the highest  bidder.

1.      The suitable title for the passage is,

(A)    The U.S. Postal Service.

(B)    Staff Responsibilities at the U.S. Postal Service.

(C)    Why is mail undeliverable.

(D)    Dead mail offices.

2.      The word “eligible” in line 2 is closest in meaning to which of the following?

(A)    Incomplete.

(B)    Missing.

(C)    Unreadable.

(D)    Incorrect.

3.      According to the passage, how many dead mail offices does the U.S. Postal Service have

(A)    3.

(B)    5.

(C)    15.

(D)    75.

4.      The word staff in line 6 is closest in meaning to

(A)    Workers.

(B)    Machines.

(C)    Rules.

(D)     Pieces of furniture.

5.      Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a way that post office staff members deal with dead mail?

(A)    They search for clues.

(B)     They throw dead mail away.

(C)     They open dead mail.

(D)    They list dead mail on a computer.

       Although the Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith appeared in 1776, it includes many of the ideas that economists still consider the foundation of private enterprise. The ideas put forth by Smith compose the basis of the philosophies of the school of thought called classical economics.

       According to Smith’s ideas, free competition and free trade are vital in fostering the growth of an economy. The role of government in the economy is to ensure the ability of companies to compete freely.

       Smith, who was himself a Scot, lived during the period of the revolutions in America and in France. During this epoch, the predominant political thought was a strong belief in freedom and independence in government. Smith’s economic ideas of free trade and competition are right in line with these political ideas.

1.       A “school” in line 3 is

(A)    a common belief

(B)     a college

(C)    a university

(D)    an educational institution

2.       Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word “free” in line 5?

(A)    Cheap

(B)     No cost

(C)    Uncontrolled

(D)    Democratic

3.       The word “line” in line 11 could best be replaced by

(A)    straightness

(B)     directness

(C)    file

(D)    agreement

 

 

 

DESIGN VISUAL AIDS

What is a visual aids?

A visual aids is an instrument used by a presenter to liven his presentation. Standing in front of people which is called presentation means giving information to them. Very often, the audience may grasp the information more easily if it is presented by visual aids rather than by verbal words. A good presenter realizes this point and tries to prepare visual aids in presentation. However, if a visual aids is not designed well, it can arise bad impression upon the presenter.

Further Notes :

  1. Remember that a visual aids does not takeover the role of a presenter. Instead, it just helps the presenter to deliver all information.
  2. Too many visual aids are not recommended. It may interest audiences’ attention. Instead of following the presentation, they are focusing on visual aids.
  3. Various animation on visual aids are not also recommended. They may disturb their concentration in following presentation. One or two kinds of animation are good enough.
  4. A good visual aids is characterized by simple form. It does not comprise with unnecessary lines. In short, all data must be presented in simple way. Complicated data may loose audiences’ interest. Remember, they do not have same capability to comprehend presented data.
  5. A visual aids contains main parts of a topic. It does not contain complete explanation. It is a presenter who will give detail information about every main point. Needless to say, most presenters ignore this point.

Take A Look At The Two Following Examples

(A)  OBESITY  (topic)

– Definition (main part)

– Signs and Symptoms (main part)

– Causes (main part)

– Prevention (main part)

– Medical Treatment (main part)

– Conclusions :

1 ________________

2. _______________

 

(B)  COMPUTER (topic)

– Historical Background (main part)

– Kinds (main part)

– Functions (main part)

– Bad Impacts (main part)

– Prospect (main part)

– Conclusion

1. _____________

2. _____________

 

EFFECTIVE PRESENTATION

HOW TO MAKE EFFECTIVE PRESENTATION?

Some people say that giving presentation is like going to a dentist a stressful and frightening situation especially if the presentation is in a foreign language. Giving a presentation is not difficult however as long as you know what you have to do and make well-preparation. This topic will help you to make an effective English presentation. Remember, final semester exam is not written exam, but presentation. It means every student  has to make English presentation. To do that you need to follow this explanation.

WHAT DOES PRESENTATION MEAN?

Of many definitions of presentation, a very homely one is PRESENTATION MEANS STANDING IN FRONT OF PEOPLE TO GIVE VARIOUS INFORMATION. Giving report, making speech, doing campaign, introducing product, and influencing people are some kinds of presentation. In other words, talking about presentation involves speaker and audience. In addition, all people can be classified into four groups dealing with presentation. The first group is those who prefer to be audiences to speakers. The second group is, those who prefer to be speakers to audiences. Then the third group belongs to those who can do both as speakers and as audiences. And the last group is those who can do neither as speakers nor as audiences.

ESSENTIAL POINT ABOUT PRESENTATION

  1. As a matter of fact, presentation is not an innate talent. People can learn it.
  2. Presentation skill is a must to all educated people regardless their majors.
  3. It is also said that presentation skill is one of main job qualifications.

TWO IMPORTANT FACTORS ON EFFECTIVE PRESENTATION

  • What are you going to present? What is the topic of your presentation? A good presenter always adjusts his topic with his prospective audiences’ need. To do that, he tries to gather information as much as possible about audiences, such as : gender, age, occupation, education, social level, religion, culture etc. Choosing a good topic may help a presenter to make presentation well. My students, I tell you here that you have to choose your topic for final exam. Your topic must be corresponding with your majors. The topic itself is divided into three main parts, namely: INTRODUCTION, BODY AND CONCLUSION. Needless to say, some speakers put an emphasis more on introduction and conclusion. Introduction may give the first impression about the speaker to the audience and conclusion is the longest information to be remembered.                                                                     Introduction consists of several main points : a) greeting the audience; b)  introduce yourself; c) say thanks; d) mention your topic and the reason why you are interested in it; e) tell the main points; f) determine rule of game.  Take a look at the following draft::

    Good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen. I am Rudi Wow. My registration number is ____________. First of all, I want to say thanks to___________________. Next I say thanks to ________________, and last but nor least, I thank ___________ This moment I’d like to talk about__________________________. I choose this topic because________________________. In the first part of my presentation, I will talk about________________. Next, I will explain about____________. After that, I will describe about______________________. Then, I will move on_____________. Before I stop my presentation I will take some conclusion. I will be happy if you ask me at the end of my presentation. Let me start.