Reading Comprehension

READING COMPREHENSION

Reading comprehension is the third part of the Toefl Test. It consists of fifty questions, but some tests may be longer. Generally, a test taker only has fifty five minutes to complete this section. Topics of reading passage are varied, such as: American History, literature, art, architecture, geology, geography, sport, invention, politics, health, economics, law and astronomy, biography etc. Moreover, there are five to seven reading passages. As a matter of fact, it is rare to find  two similar TOPICS in the same test and there is no guarantee that all topics are related to  test taker’s educational background. That is why, many participants confess that they are unable to finish this section because of limited time. Knowing these handicaps, let you learn the following effective strategies.

Some effective strategies

1.     Skim the reading passage to determine the main idea, topic or title. Remember, main idea is commonly placed in the first sentence of every paragraph. some writers put it in the middle and a few writers prefer placing it in the last sentence to the first one. Topic, main idea or title is discussed in every paragraph. In other words, the most important information of the passage is so-called topic or title.

2.     It is possible that you will find some new vocabulary in every passage. However, you do not need to worry about it, because generally the next sentence will explain any certain terms. Moreover, a participant does not have to posses any particular knowlegde to comprehend the passages.

3.     Sometimes, it is more efficient to learn the questions first before reading the passage. Very often, we can answer certain questions correctly without understanding every detail in each passage.

4.     A test taker must be accustomed to the question forms, so that s/he will not get confused what the question about is.

 

Reading Comprehension

READING COMPREHENSION

Reading comprehension is the third part of the Toefl Test. It consists of fifty questions, but some tests may be longer. Generally, a test taker only has fifty five minutes to complete this section. Topics of reading passage are varied, such as: American History, literature, art, architecture, geology, geography, sport, invention, politics, health, economics, law and astronomy, biography etc. Moreover, there are five to seven reading passages. As a matter of fact, it is rare to find  two similar TOPICS in the same test and there is no guarantee that all topics are related to  test taker’s educational background. That is why, many participants confess that they are unable to finish this section because of limited time. Knowing these handicaps, let you learn the following effective strategies.

Some effective strategies

1.     Skim the reading passage to determine the main idea, topic or title. Remember, main idea is commonly placed in the first sentence of every paragraph. some writers put it in the middle and a few writers prefer placing it in the last sentence to the first one. Topic, main idea or title is discussed in every paragraph. In other words, the most important information of the passage is so-called topic or title.

2.     It is possible that you will find some new vocabulary in every passage. However, you do not need to worry about it, because generally the next sentence will explain any certain terms. Moreover, a participant does not have to posses any particular knowlegde to comprehend the passages.

3.     Sometimes, it is more efficient to learn the questions first before reading the passage. Very often, we can answer certain questions correctly without understanding every detail in each passage.

4.     A test taker must be accustomed to the question forms, so that s/he will not get confused what the question about is.

 

 

APPLICATION LETTER

What is application letter?

Application letter is a means of communication used by an applicant to keep in touch with his prospective employer. in other words, a job seeker tries to apply a job by sending application. There are three types of application, namely:

1. Application as a reply to advertisement. This is the most common type of applications. Many working people get their jobs through advertisement.

2. Application based on recommendation. An applicant gets job vacancy from his relative, family, friend and other working people. It is said that recommended application could be more possible to be accepted by the owner.

3. Application based on initiative of an applicant. This type of application is sent by an applicant without information. In other words, an applicant may send application anytime he wants as long as it belongs to private company. In addition, a job seeker does not have any reason not to apply job.

Essential Things About Application Letter

1. Application is the representative of an applicant by which the employer makes judgment. In a broader sense, whatever we give to other people either goods or service is our representative. Therefore, it is suggested that, we try to imagine as receivers although we are senders.

2. There three important elements to be considered. They are; the quality of paper, tone and content.

3. It should be remembered that sending application is not applying job, but asking a job interview. Therefore, an applicant must be able to convince the employer that s/he is the right candidate to face job interview. Then, while facing job interview, an applicant will talk much about the job itself.

4. Application letter is one page only. It means business people are not interested to learn long application, because they are very busy and have limited time for that.

5. Unless asked by the employer, it is better to type application letter rather than to write.

6. Remember that application letter does not use letterhead even though at the same time you have job.

7. It is not necessary to enclose a lot of testimonials. 3 or 5 are recommended.

Asking And Giving Opinion

How To Ask And To Give Opinion?

Dealing with asking and giving opinion, Intellectual people have to comprehend the following items :

1. There are some common phrases which can be applied to ask opinion, such as :  What do you know about Japanese culture? What is your comment about working at night? What can you say about function of money? What is your opinion about TV’s programs? What do you think about young marriage?

2. There are some phrases which can be used to give opinion, such as : I think young marriage is OK as long as the couple know well what they will have to do. According to my mind, the main function of money is a means of exchange.

3. Asking and giving opinion in formal situation and in informal situation is different.

4. Opinion must be supported by certain reason or argument.

5. It is natural to have different opinion. Therefore, someone should be able to appreciate others’ different opinions.