More Detail about Presentation

MORE  DETAILED  ABOUT  PRESENTATION

 Here below, I summarize the essential points about PRESENTATION dealing with my lecture. Please learn as important things for final semester exam.

1.    Presentation means standing in front of people.

2.    Someone who does a presentation is called PRESENTER and people who join presentation are called audience.

3.    A presenter would like to give information to audience.

4.    There are two important factors to make effective presentation. They are : What are we going to present? (TOPIC) and How are we presenting the topic. (DELIVERY)

5.    Topic is divided into three main points, namely: INTRODUCTION, BODY, and CONCLUSION.

  • A new presenter will adjust the topic with his prospective audience’s demand.
  • A presenter will start a presentation with introduction and end the presentation with conclusion.
  • Conclusion is the most important information given to audience.

6.    Delivery consists of : eye-contact, voice and posture relaxed.

  • A presenter will keep eye contact to all audience.
  • A presenter will try not to turn back the audience.
  • A presenter must speak loudly so that every audience cam hear his voice clearly.
  • Speaking too fast on presentation could be assumed that the presenter is nervous. Consequently, the audience will not be able to comprehend his explanation. On the other hand, speaking too slowly may cause the audience fall asleep.
  • A comfortable speed for non-native audience is 90 words per minute, whereas for native audience is 110 to 120 words.
  • Body language could add information on presentation.

 

7.    A presenter must keep to the time. He must know well how long the time is given.

8.    It is better less than one minute than more than one minute.

9.    A presenter will try to avoid any mistake on presentation especially in taking conclusion. To do this a presenter had better provide the conclusion in notes.

10.                       Do not use too many slides on presentation. Remember, slide is a visual aid. It does not make presentation.

11.                       Practice a lot until you feel that you are have been well prepared.

12.                       Do not look at the ceiling or floor.

13.                       Gather information about your prospective audience, such as : age, job, religion, education, culture, etc.

14.                       Do not memorize your presentation.

15.                       Avoid producing useless sound on presentation.

16.                        There are three ways to overcome stage fright, namely : take deep breath, relaxation and laughing.

17.                       If possible, do not stay in place only.

18.                       There is no new information on conclusion. It is the review of main points in body.

19.                       Sometimes, gesture is impolite for higher level.

20.                       Do not ask apology for not being prepared.

21.                       A presenter must have self confidence.

22.                       Make sure you know the topic better than the audience.

23.                       Use asking and answering session to give more information.

24.                       One way to anticipate question is “Do not give complete information on certain parts”.

25.                       Do not answer question that is not corresponding with the title.

26.                       Silence is death on presentation.

Take A look at the following complete draft of presentation

 

This morning I’d like to talk about the importance of having marketing strategy for a new consumer product. It is important because it will greatly increase your chances of success. I’ll be talking about three things: First, conducting market research, then designing the product and finally having a sales campaign. If your product has a good design but is not what your customers want, then no one will be interested to buy it. Therefore, you have to find out the type of product people want before designing it. There are two ways you can conduct research. First, you can mail out questionnaires to people’s home. Second, you can survey people at stores and shopping centers. After that, when designing a new product you have to consider both customers want and production costs. If you know what type of product your customers want but production costs are too high, you will lose money if you try to make it. Therefore, you have to be able to design a product people want and keep production cost down. In order to get people interested in your new product you should have a sales campaign. There are three major methods of reaching your customers: TV / Radio, newspapers and direct mailings. Finally, several months before your new product is ready for sale, you should begin running commercials on TV introducing it to people. I’ve talked about three important strategies in marketing new product, they are: conducting research to determine what people want, designing products based on customer wants and having sales campaign to get people interested in buying the product. If you follow these three steps, your chances of success will be greatly increased. Thank you for listening.

Effective Presentation Tips

 Above all know your audience and match what you say to their needs. Creating your presentation with your audience in mind, will assure that your audience will follow you. If your presentation doesn’t appeal to your audience – no matter how well you have developed your presentation – your presentation will fall on deaf ears. This leads us to the next rule: Know your material thoroughly. Your material needs to be second nature to you. Practice and rehearse your presentation with friends, in front of a mirror, and with colleagues. If you are speaking in a second language, make sure that you record yourself and listen a number of times before going to practice with a native speaker (if possible). Remember that you are an actor when presenting. Make sure that not only your physical appearance is appropriate to the occasion, but also the tone you use is well chosen. If your topic is serious, be solemn. However, it’s always a good idea to begin your presentation with an ice-breaker. Don’t worry about making friends, rather lead the audience through your materials in a calm and relaxed manner. Speak slowly and clearly, and remember to address everyone in the audience – even the person the farthest away from you. To achieve the above goals follow these tips when giving your presentation:

1.      Speak with conviction. Believe what you are saying and you will persuade your audience.

2.      Do not read from notes. Referring to notes is fine, but do so only briefly.

3.      Maintain eye contact with your audience. Making direct eye contact with individuals will help them feel as if they are participating in your presentation.

4.      Know when to stop. This cannot be underestimated. You need to make your case, but continuing for too long will only ensure that the audience forgets what you have said.

 

Structure 4

STRUCTURE

SKILL 25: USE PARALLEL STRUCTURE WITH PAIRED CONJUNCTIONS

The paired conjunctions both… and, either… or, neither… nor and not only… but also require parallel structures.

  • I know both where you went and what you did.
  • Either Mark or Sue has the book.
  • The tickets are neither in my pocket nor in my purse.
  • He is not only an excellent student but also an outstanding athlete.

The following is not parallel and must be corrected:

  • He wants either to go by train or by plane*.

It is not correct because to go by train is not parallel to by plane.

It can he corrected in several ways:

  • He wants either to go by train or to go by plane.
  • He wants to go either by train or by plane.
  • He wants to go by either train or plane.

When you are using these paired conjunctions, be sure that the correct parts are used together. The following are incorrect:

  • I want both this book or* that one.
  • Either Sam nor* Sue is taking the course.

These sentences are incorrect because the wrong parts of the paired conjunctions are used together.

In the first example, and should be used with both. In the second example, or should be used with either.

The following chart outlines the use of parallel structure with paired conjunctions:

PARALLEL STRUCTURE WITH PAIRED CONJUNCTION

both

either

neither

not only

 

(same structure)

and

or

nor

but also

 

(same structure)

 

 

EXERCISE 25: Each of the following sentences contains words or groups of words that should be parallel. Circle the word or words that indicate that the sentence should have parallel parts. Underline the parts that should be parallel. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I) .

    1. According to the syllabus, you can either write a paper or you can take an exam.
    2. It would be both noticed and appreciated if you could finish the work before you Ieave.
    3. She would like neither to see a movie or to go bowling.
    4. Either the manager or her assistant can help you with your refund.
    5. She wants not only to take a trip to Europe but she also would like to travel to Asia.
    6. He could correct neither what you said nor you wrote.
    7. Both the tailor or the laundress could fix the damage to the dress.
    8. He not only called the police department but also called the fire department.
    9. You can graduate either at the end of the fall semester or you can graduate at the end of the spring semester.
    10. The movie was neither amusing nor was it interesting.

 

PROBLEMS WITH PASSIVE VERBS

Sentences in which the error is an incorrect passive are common in written expression questions on the TOEFL test. You therefore need to be able to recognize the correct form of the passive and to he able to determine when a passive verb rather than an active verb is needed in a sentence.

The difference between an active and a. passive verb is that the subject in an active sentence does the action of the verb, and the subject in a passive sentence receives the action of the verb. To convert a sentence from active to passive, two changes must be made.

(1) The subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence, while the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence.

(2) The verb in the passive sentence is formed by putting the helping verb be in the same form as the verb in the active sentence and then adding the past participle of this verb.

  • Margaret wrote the letter.

SUBJECT                   OBJECT

  • The letter was written by Margaret.

The first example is an active sentence. To convert this active sentence to a passive sentence, you must first make the subject of the active sentence, Margaret, the object of the passive sentence with by. The object of the active sentence, letter, becomes the subject of the passive sentence. Next, the passive verb can be formed. Because wrote is in the past tense in the active sentence, the past tense of be (was) is used in the passive sentence. Then the verb wrote in the active sentence is changed to the past participle written in the passive sentence.

It should be noted that in a passive sentence, by + object does not need to be included to have a complete sentence. The following are both examples of correct sentences.

  • The letter was written yesterday by Margaret.
  • The letter was written yesterday.

Notice that these passive sentences are correct if by Margaret is included (as in the first example) or if by Margaret is omitted (as in the second example).

SKILL 37: USE THE CORRECT FORM OF THE PASSIVE

One way that the passive can be tested on the TOEFL test is simply with an incorrect form of the passive. The following are examples of passive errors that might appear on the TOEFL test:

  • The portrait was painting* by a famous artist.
  • The project will finished* by Tim.

In the first example, the passive is formed incorrectly because the past participle painted should be used rather than the present participle painting. In the second example, the verb be has not been included, and some form of be is necessary for a passive verb. The verb in the second sentence should be will be finished.

EXERCISE 37: Each of the following sentences has a passive meaning. Underline twice the verbs that should be passive. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

1. The boy had never be stung by a bee.

2. The suits were hung in the closet when they were returned from the cleaners.

3. Money is lending by the credit union to those who want to buy homes.

4. The record had been chose by dancers near the jukebox.

5. The topic for your research paper should have been approved by your advisor.

6. That song has been playing over and over again by Steve.

7. Their utility bills have been increased again and again.

8. The patients who are too sick to sit tip are being assisted by the orderlies.

9. The offices were thoroughly clean last evening by the night crew.

10. The car that was struck in the intersection yesterday is being repaired today.

Skill 1: Verb that Require an Infinitive in the Complement

Remember that the following verbs require an infinitive for a verb in the complement.

 

agree

appear

arrange

ask

claim

consent

decide

demand

deserve

expect

fail

forget

hesitate

hope

intend

learn

manage

mean

need

offer

plan

prepare

pretend

promise

Refuse

Seem

Tend

Threaten

Wait

want

 

S V C (Infinitive) M
We had planned to leave day before yesterday

 

Avoid using an –ing form after the verbs listed. Avoid using a verb word after want.

Practice 1:  Rewrite the following sentences into the correct ones.

 

1. He wanted speak with Mr. Brown.

 

2. We demand knowing our status.

 

3. I intend inform you that we cannot approve your application.

 

4. They didn’t plan buying a car.

 

5. The weather tends improving in May.

 

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer

One of the least effective ways of storing information is learning ______ it.

(a)  how repeat

(b)  repeating

(c)  to repeat

(d)  repeat

 

Part B : Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

Representative democracy seemed evolve simultaneously during the

(A)     (B)               (C)

 

eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in Britain, Europe, and the United States.

(D)

 

Skill 2: Verbs that Require an –ing Form in the Complement

Remember that the following verbs require an –ing form for a verb in the complement :

admit

appreciate

avoid

complete

consider

delay

deny

discuss

enjoy

finish

keep

mention

miss

postpone

practice

quit

recall

recommend

regret

risk

stop

suggest

tolerate

understand

 

S

V

C (-ing)

M

He

enjoys

traveling

By plane

 

Avoid using an infinitive after the verbs listed

Forbid may be used with either infinitive or an –ing complement, but forbid from is not idiomatic.

Practice 2 :  Rewrite the following sentences into the correct ones.

 

1. She is considering not to go

 

2. We enjoyed talk with your friend

 

3. Hank completed the writing his thesis this summer

 

4. I miss to watch the news when I am traveling

 

5. She mentions stop at El Paso in her letter

 

EXERCISES

Part A : Choose the correct answer

Straus finished _________ two of his published compositions before his tenth birthday.

(A)  written

(B)  write

(C)  to write

(D)  writing

 

Part B : Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

Many people have stopped to smoking because they are afraid that it

(A)                                                      (B)            (C)

 

may be harmful to their health.

(D)

 

Skill 3: Verb Phrases that Require an –ing Form in the Complement

Remember that the following verb phrases require an –ing form for a verb in the complement :

approve of

be better off

can’t help

count on

do not mind

forget about

get through

insist on

keep on

look forward to

object to

think about

think of

 

S

V Ph

C (-ing)

M

She

forgot about

canceling

her appointment

 

Avoid using an infinitive after the verb phrases listed. Avoid using a verb after look forward to and object to.

Remember that the verb phrase BE likely does no require an –ing form but requires an infinitive in the complement.

Exercise

52. As a general rule, the standard of living…..by the average output of                   75

each person in society

(A)   is fixed

(B)   fixed

(C)   has fixed

(D)   fixed

53. Jupiter…..perhaps the most important planet of solar system

(A) to be

(B) was

(C) is

(D) like

54. The manager……his new staff about computer system a week later

(A) trains

(B) will train

(C) trained

(D) is training

55.  Five months ago the salary of chief accountant was five million rupiahs, but

this month…..

(A)  was same

(B)   was seven million rupiahs

(C)   is six million rupiahs

(D)  will be ten million rupiahs

56.  ……….are two kinds of financial statement

(A) balance sheet or income statement

(B) capital statement or balance sheet

(C) income statement and capital statement

(D) income statement, balance sheet, and capital statement

57.  Canada does not require that U.S citizens obtain passports to enter the country

and …..

(A) Mexico does either

(B) Mexico doesn’t either

(C) Neither Mexico does

(D) Either Mexico does

58.  Scientists are now beginning to conduct experiments on……trigger different

sorts of health risk.

(A) noise pollution can

(B) that noise pollution

(C) how noise pollution

(D) how noise pollution can

59 . The final delivery of the day is the importantest

A                           B      C             D

60.  There are approximately two hundred employee in this private insurance

A                 B                                       C                       D

61.  Scientists at the medical centre is trying to determine if there is a relationship

A                 B                    C

between saccharine and cancer

D

62.  The Central Banking System of the U.S consists of twelve banks district           76 

A                            B                      C                           D

63.  After last week’s meeting, the advertising department quickly realized that

A                                   B                                     C

the product will need a new slogan

D

64.  The United States receives a large amount of revenue from taxation of

A                                        B                    C

a tobacco products

D

65.   Bankruptcy may be either voluntary nor involuntary

A             B                       C         D

66.  Her money gave back as soon as she threatened to take the matter to court

A            B                      C                                  D

several months ago.

67. The Colorado River reaches their maximum height during April and May

A       B                                   C                 D

 

Reading 3

Question forms

Questions on Reading Comprehension

 

1.     What is the best title for the passage?

2.     The best title of this passage would be:

3.     The suitable title for the passage is:

4.     Which of the following would be the best title for this passage?

5.     The title below that best expresses the ideas in this passage is:

6.     The main idea of this passage is that:

7.     What is the author’s main purpose?

8.     What is the author’s main point?

9.     The subject of this passage is:

10.                        What is the main topic of the passage?

11.                        With which of the following topic is the passage primarily concerned?

12.                        With what topic is this passage primarily concerned?

13.                        Which of the following is the main topic of the passage?

14.                        What does the passage mainly discuss?

15.                        The word “posture” in line 5 is closest in  meaning with:

16.                        The expression “dominance over” in line 6 is closest in meaning to:

17.                        The word “keep” in line 10 could be replaced by:

18.                        The word “those” in paragraph 2 could be replaced by:

19.                        The word “prone” in line 8 is nearest in meaning to:

20.                        The word “they” in line 16 refers to:

21.                        The word “it” in line 10 refers to:

22.                        The pronoun “he” in line 11 refers to:

23.                        Which of the following is NOT true about……..?

24.                        Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage about…..?

25.                        Which of the following is not stated…..?

26.                        According to the passage, which of the following is NOT true about……?

27.                        All of the following are true EXCEPT:

28.                        The author mentions all of the following as characteristics of …… EXCEPT

29.                        Where in the passage, does the author mention about…….?

30.                        It is implied in the passage that……:

31.                        The passage states that….:

32.                        It can be infered from the passage that……

33.                        It can be stated from the passage that:

34.                        The passage indicates that….:

QUESTIONS ABOUT TOPIC, TITLE, and MAIN IDEA

  • This type of question absolutely appear on Toefl test.
  • The answer of such question is an information that is mostly discussed by the author and should be found in all paragraphs.
  • Topic, title or main idea is the most important information of a passage.

Example

The three phases of human memory are the sensory memory, the short-term memory and the long-term memory. This division of memory in to phases is based on the length of time of the memory. Sensory memory is instantaneous memory. It is an image or memory that enters your mind only for a short period of time; it comes and goes in under a second. The memory will not last longer than that unless the information enters the short-term memory.

Information can be held in the short-term memory for about twenty seconds or as long as you are actively using it. If you repeat a fact to yourself, that fact will stay in your short-term memory as long as you keep repeating it. Once you stop repeating it, either it is forgotten or it moves to long-term memory.

Long-term memory is a huge memory tank that can hold ideas and images for years and years. Information can be added to your long-term memory when you actively try to put it there through memorization or when an idea or image enters your mind on its own.

1.      The best title of this passage would be;

(A)  the difference between sensory and short-term memory.

(B)  the stage of human memory.

(C)  how long it takes to memorize.

(D)  human phases.

The corerect answer is (B). (A) is incorrect, because the author not only discusses sensory and short-term memory, but also long-term. (C) is incorrect, because does not want to describe the length of time to memorize. (D) is incorrect, because this does not state its real meaning.

 

Your turn,

 

It is not strictly true that one half of the world population is rich and the other half is poor. It is one third that is very rich and two-thirds that are very poor. People in the rich third do not realize the enormous difference between them and the other two-thirds. A very simple example, a dog or a cat in North America eats better than a child in poor country. A fisherman in South America may be catching fish which is processed into pet food and yet his children are not getting enough protein for their bodies to develop properly. Although a lot of world’s natural resources like oil come from these poor countries, we in the rich countries are probably using sixty times as much of these resources. In some cases, the prices of exported commodities in poor countries have gone down. In others, they have remained steady. However, the prices of export product in rich countries have continued to rise. So, they are getting richer and richer and the poorer countries are getting poorer.

The possible titles are :

  •   The world population.
  •    Poor and rich people in the world.

 

       Although the Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith appeared in 1776, it includes many of the ideas that economists still consider the foundation of private enterprise. The ideas put forth by Smith compose the basis of the philosophies of the school of thought called classical economics.

       According to Smith’s ideas, free competition and free trade are vital in fostering the growth of an economy. The role of government in the economy is to ensure the ability of companies to compete freely.

       Smith, who was himself a Scot, lived during the period of the revolutions in America and in France. During this epoch, the predominant political thought was a strong belief in freedom and independence in government. Smith’s economic ideas of free trade and competition are right in line with these political ideas.

1.                 A “school” in line 3 is

(A)    a common belief

(B)     a college

(C)    a university

(D)    an educational institution

2.                 Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word “free” in line 5?

(A)    Cheap

(B)     No cost

(C)    Uncontrolled

(D)    Democratic

3.                 The word “line” in line 11 could best be replaced by

(A)    straightness

(B)     directness

(C)    file

(D)    agreement

 

 

 

 

 

 

Listening 3

Listening Part C

1. It is very helpful to your overall comprehension if you know what topics to expect in the long conversations. You should therefore try to anticipate the topics you will be hearing. For example, are the conversations about some aspect of school life, or some type of social issue, or a trip someone is planning? A helpful strategy is therefore to look briefly at the answers in the test book, before you actually hear the conversations on the recording, and try to determine the topics of the conversations that you will hear.

2. IDENTIFYING QUESTIONS

1.Who is talking?
2.When does the talk probably take place?
3.Where does the talk probably take place?
4.What course is the talk concerned with?
5.What is the source of information for the talk?
3.Exercise One

  1. (A) during a biology laboratory session          9. (A) they are not so violent

(B) in a biology study group                                (B) they are located along the ring

(C) on the first day of the class                                   of fire

(D) just before the final exam                              (C) they contain a lot of gas

  1. (A) once a week                                                   (D) they contain thick lava

(B) two times a week                                     10. (A) a volcano on the ring of fire

(C) three times a week                                         (B) an island in the Hawaii

(D) for fifteen hours                                             (C) a long, low volcanic mountain

  1. (A) to do the first laboratory assignment             (D) an explosive volcano

(B) to take the first exam                               11. (A) an artist

(C) to study the laboratory manual                      (B) a tour guide

(D) to read one chapter of the text                       (C) an Indian

  1. (A) room assignments                                          (D) Orvile Wright

(B) exam topics                                              12. (A) several

(C) reading assignments                                       (B) sixty thousand

(D) the first lecture                                               (C) sixteen million

  1. (A) exams and lab work                                       (D) millions and millions

(B) reading and writing assignments              13. (A) The National Air and Space Museum

(C) class participation and grades on                    (B) the Museum of Natural history

examinations                                                  (C) The American History Museum

(D) lecture and laboratory attendance                   (D) The Smithsonian Arts and

  1. (A) what caused the ring of fire                                    Industries Building

(B) the volcanoes of the ring of fire                14. (A) The American History Museum

(C) Hawaiian volcanoes                                         (B) The Smithsonian Arts and

(D) different types of volcanoes                                   Industries Building

  1. (A) the ring of fire                                                  (C) The Washington Museum

(B) the characteristics of volcanoes in                   (D) The National Air and Space Museum

the ring of fire                                            15. (A) to the White House

(C) the volcanoes of Hawaii                                  (B) to the Smithsonian

(D) Mauna Loa                                                       (C) to the mall

  1. (A) in Hawaii                                                          (D) to various other museums

(B) in the United States

(C) along the ring of fire

(D) within the ring of fire

Additional materials;

  1. Key words for questions no 1 through 5; laboratory assistant, Biological sciences, laboratory manual, accompany, course syllabus, exam grades.
  2. Key words for questions no 6 through 10; encircle, include, approximately, eruptions, caused by movement, Earth’s plates, rather than, mounds, flow, slope
  3. Where is PT. Tirta located?…….. PT Tirta is located on Jalan Thamrin Jakarta

Where is your campus located? ………………………………………………………………………..

Where is Mall Angrek located? ………………………………………………………………………..

Where is Metro TV situated? ………………………………..

Structure 3

 BE SURE THE SENTENCE HAS A SUBJECT AND A VERB

You know that a sentence in English should have a subject and a verb. The most common types of problems that you will encounter in structure questions on the TOEFL test have to do with subjects and verbs: perhaps the sentence is missing either the subject or the verb or both, or perhaps the sentence has an extra subject or verb.

———- was backed up for miles on the freeway.

(A) Yesterday

(B) In the morning

(C) Traffic

(D) Cars

In this example you should notice immediately that there is a verb was, but there is no subject. Answer (C) is the best answer because it contains the singular subject traffic that agrees with the singular verb was. Answer (A), yesterday, and answer (B), in the morning, are not subjects, so they are not correct. Although answer (D), cars, could be a subject, it is not correct because cars is plural and it does not agree with the singular verb was.

EXERCISE 1: Underline the subjects once and the verbs twice in each of the following sentences. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

  1. Last week went fishing for trout at the nearby mountain lake.
  2. A schedule of the day’s events can be obtained at the front desk.
  3. A job on the day shift or the night shift at the plant available.
  4. The new computer program has provides a variety of helpful applications.
  5. The box can be opened only with a special screwdriver.
  6. The assigned text for history class it contains more than twenty chapters.
  7. The papers in the wastebasket should be emptied into the trash can outside.
  8. Departure before dawn on a boat in the middle of the harbor.
  9. Yesterday found an interesting article on pollution.

10. The new machine is processes 50 percent more than the previous machine.

  USE COORDINATE CONNECTORS CORRECTLY

When you have two clauses in an English sentence, you must connect the two clauses correctly. One way to connect two clauses is to use and, but, or, so, or yet between the clauses.

  • Tom is singing, and Paul is dancing.
  • Tom is tall, but Paul is short.
  • Tom must write the letter, or Paul will do it.
  • Tom told a joke, so Paul laughed.
  • Tom is tired, yet he is not going to sleep.

In each of these examples, there are two clauses that are correctly joined with a coordinate conjunction and, but, or, so, or yet, and a comma (,).

A power failure occurred, ———– the lamps went out.

(A) then

(B) so

(C) later

(D) next

In this example you should notice quickly that there are two clauses, a power failure occurred and the lamps went out. This sentence needs a connector to join the two clauses. Then, later; and next are not connectors, so answers (A), (C), and (D) are not correct. The best answer is answer (B) because so can connect two clauses.

 Each of the following sentences contains more than one clause. Underline the subjects once and the verbs twice. Circle the connectors. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

  1. The software should be used on a laptop computer, and this computer is a laptop.
  2. The rain clouds can be seen in the distance, but no has fallen.
  3. They are trying to sell their house, it has been on the market for two months.
  4. So the quality of the print was not good, I changed the typewriter ribbon.
  5. The lifeguard will warn you about the riptides, or she may require you to get out of the water.
  6. You should have finished the work yesterday, yet is not close to being finished today.
  7. The phone rang again and again, so the receptionist was not able to get much work done.
  8. The missing wallet was found, but the cash and credit cards had been removed.
  9. Or you can drive your car for another 2,000 miles, you can get it fixed.
  10. The chemist was awarded the Nobel Prize, he flew to Europe to accept it
  11. USE ADVERB TIME AND CAUSE CONNECTORS CORRECTLY

Sentences with adverb clauses have two basic patterns in English. Study the clauses and connectors in the following sentences:

  • I will sign the check before you leave.
  • Before you leave, I will sign the check.

In each of these examples, there are two clauses: you leave and I will sign the check, and the clause you leave is an adverb time clause because it is introduced with the connector before. In the first example the connector before comes in the middle of the sentence, and no comma (,) is used.

In the second example the connector before comes at the beginning of the sentence. In this pattern, when the connector comes at the beginning of the sentence, a comma (,) is required in the middle of the sentence.

——— was late, I missed the appointment.

    1. I
    2. Because
    3. The train
    4. Since he

In this example you should recognize easily that there is a verb, was, that needs a subject. There is also another clause, I missed the appointment.

If you choose answer (A) or answer (C) , you will have a subject for the verb was, but you will not have a connector to join the two clauses. Because you need a connector to join two clauses, answers (A) and (C) are incorrect. Answer (B) is incorrect because there is no subject for the verb was. Answer (D) is the best answer because there is a subject, he, for the verb was, and there is a connector, since, to join the two clauses.

 

EXERCISE 7: Each of the following sentences contains more than one clause. Underline the subjects once and the verbs twice. Circle the connectors. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (1).

  1. Since the bank closes in less than an hour, the deposits need to be tallied immediately.
  2. Their backgrounds are thoroughly investigated before arc admitted to the organization.
  3. The citizens are becoming more and more incensed about traffic accidents whenever the accidents occur at that intersection.
  4. The ground had been prepared, the seedlings were carefully planted.
  5. We can start the conference now that all the participants have arrived.
  6. The building quite vulnerable to damage until the storm windows are installed.
  7. Once the address label for the package is typed, can he sent to the mail room.
  8. Because the recent change in work shifts was not posted, several workers missed their shifts.
  9. The mother is going to be quite upset with her son as long he misbehaves so much.
  10. Inasmuch as all the votes have not yet been counted the outcome of the election cannot be announced.

 

STRUCTURE

SKILL 8: USE OTHER ADVERB CONNECTORS CORRECTLY

Adverb clauses can express the ideas of time and cause, as you saw in Skill 7; adverb clauses can also express a number of other ideas, such as contrast, condition, manner, and place. Because these clauses are adverb clauses, they have the same structure as the time and cause clauses in Skill 7. Study the following examples:

  • I will leave at 7:00 if I am ready.
  • Although I was late, I managed to catch the train.

In each of these examples, there are two clauses that are correctly joined with adverb connectors. In the first sentence, the adverb condition connector if comes in the middle of the sentence. In the second sentence, the adverb contrast connector although comes at the beginning of the sentence, and a comma (,) is used in the middle of the sentence.

You will get a good grade on the exam provided —————

(A) studying

(B) study

(C) to study

(D) you study

In this example you should quickly notice the adverb condition connector provided. This connector comes in the middle of the sentence; because it is a connector, it must be followed by a subject and a verb. The best answer to this question is answer (D), which contains the subject and verb you study.

 

EXERCISE 8: Each of the following sentences contains more than one clause. Underline the subjects once and the verbs twice. Circle the connectors. Then indicate if the sentences are correct. (C) or incorrect (I).

  1. It is impossible to enter that program if you lack experience as a teacher.
  2. The commandant left strict, orders about the passes, several soldiers left the post anyway.
  3. No one is admitted to the academy unless he or she the education requirements.
  4. While most students turned the assignment in on time, a few asked for an extension.
  5. I will take you wherever need to go to complete the registration procedures.
  6. I will wait here in the airport with you whether the plane leaves on time or not.
  7. Providing the envelope is postmarked by this Friday, your application still acceptable.
  8. As the nurse already explained, all visitors must leave the hospital room now.
  9. This exam will be more difficult than usual in that it covers two chapters instead of one.
  10. Though snow had been falling all day long, everyone got to the church on time for the wedding.

 

SKILL 13: USE REDUCED ADJECTIVE CLAUSES CORRECTLY

Adjective clauses can appear in a reduced forth. In the reduced form, the adjective clause connector and the be-verb that directly follow it are omitted.

  • The woman who is waving to us is the tour guide.
  • The letter which was written last week arrived today.
  • The pitcher that is on the table is full of iced tea.

Each of these sentences may be used in the complete form or in the reduced form. In the reduced form the connector who, which, or that is omitted along with the be verb is or was.

If there is no be-verb in the adjective clause, it is still possible to have a reduced form. When there is no he-verb in the adjective clause, the connector is omitted and the verb is changed into the -ing form.

  • I don’t understand the article which appears in today’s paper.
  • —-> I don’t understand the article appearing in today’s paper.

In this example there is no be-verb in the adjective clause which appears in today’s paper, so the connector which is omitted and the main verb appears is changed to the -ing form appearing.

It should be noted that not all adjective clauses can appear in a reduced form. An adjective clause can appear in a reduced form only if the adjective clause connector is followed directly by a verb. In other words, an adjective clause can only be reduced if the connector is also a subject.

  • The woman that I just met is the tour guide.          (does not reduce)
  • The letter which you sent me arrived yesterday.    (does not reduce)

In these two examples the adjective clauses cannot be reduced because the adjective clause connectors that and which are not directly followed by verbs; that is directly followed by the subject I, and which is directly followed by the subject you.

A final point to note is that some adjective clauses are set off from the rest of the sentence with commas, and these adjective clauses can also be reduced. In addition, when an adjective clause is set off with commas, the reduced adjective clause can appear at the front of the sentence.

  • The White House, which is located in Washington, is the home of the president.
  • The White House, located in Washington, is the home of the president.
  • Located in Washington, the White House is the home of the president.

ü  The president, who is now preparing to give a speech, is meeting with his advisors.

ü  The president, now preparing to give a speech, is meeting with his advisors.

ü  Now preparing to give a speech, the president is meeting with his advisors.

In these two examples, the adjective clauses are set off from the rest of the sentence with commas, so each sentence can be structured in three different ways: (1.) with the complete clause, (2) with the reduced clause following the noun that it describes, and (3) with the reduced clause at the beginning of the sentence.

——– on several different television programs, the witness gave conflicting accounts of what had happened.

(A) He appeared

(B) Who appeared

(C) Appearing

(D) Appears

In this example, answer (A) is incorrect because there are two clauses, He appeared… and the witness gave…, and there is no connector to join them. Answer (B) is incorrect because an adjective clause such as who appeared… cannot appear at the beginning of a. sentence (unless it is in a reduced form). Answer (C) is the correct answer because it is the reduced form of the clause who appeared, and this reduced form can appear at the front of the sentence. Answer (D) is not the reduced form of a verb; it is merely a verb in the present tense; a verb such as appears needs a subject and a connector to be correct.

 

EXERCISE 13: Each of the following sentences contains an adjective clause, in a complete or reduced form. Underline the adjective clauses. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

    1. We will have to return the merchandise purchased yesterday at the Broadway.
    2. The children sat in the fancy restaurant found it difficult to behave.
    3. Serving a term of four years, the mayor of the town will face reelection next year.
    4. The brand new Cadillac, purchasing less than two weeks ago, was destroyed in the accident.
    5. The fans who supporting their team always come out to the games in large numbers.
    6. The suspect can be seen in the photographs were just released by the police.
    7. The food placing on the picnic table attracted a large number of flies.
    8. Impressed with everything she had heard about the course, Marie signed her children up for it.
    9. The passengers in the airport waiting room, heard the announcement of the canceled flight, groaned audibly.
    10. Dissatisfied with the service at the restaurant, the meal really was not enjoyable.

STRUCTURE

SKILL 14: USE REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSES CORRECTLY

Adverb clauses can also appear in a reduced form. In the reduced form, the adverb connector remains, but the subject and be verb are omitted.

  • Although he is rather unwell, the speaker will take part in the seminar.
  • When you are ready, you can begin your speech.

These two examples may be used in either the complete or reduced form. In the reduced form, the adverb connectors although and when remain; the subjects he and you as well as the be-verbs is and are are omitted.

If there is no be-verb in the adverb clause, it is still possible to have a reduced form. When there is no be-verb in the adverb clause, the subject is omitted and the main verb is changed into the –ing forrn.

  • Although he feels rather sick, the speaker will take part in the seminar.

è Although feeling rather sick, the speaker will take part in the seminar.

  • When you give your speech, you should speak Ioudly and distinctly.

è When giving your speech, you should speak Ioudly and distinctly.

In the first example the adverb clause although he feels rather sick does not include a be-verb; to reduce this clause, the subject he is omitted and the main verb feels is changed to feeling In the second example the adverb clause when you give your speech also does not include a he-verb; to reduce this clause, the subject you is omitted and the main verb give is changed to giving.

When ——     , you are free to leave.

(A) the finished report

(B) finished with the report

(C) the report

(D) is the report finished

In this example you should notice the adverb connector when, and you should know that this time word could be followed by either a complete clause or a reduced clause. Answers (A) and (C) contain the subjects the finished report and the report and no verb, so these answers are incorrect. In answer (D) the subject and verb are inverted, and this is not a question, so answer (D) is incorrect. The correct answer is answer (B); this answer is the reduced form of the clause when you are finished with the report.

It should be noted that not all adverb clauses can appear in a reduced form, and a number of adverb clauses can only be reduced if the verb is in the passive form.

  • Once you submit your thesis, you will graduate.    (active — does not reduce) 
  • Once  it is submitted, your thesis will be reviewed. (passive — does reduce)

In the first example, the adverb clause once you submit your thesis does not reduce because clauses introduced by once only reduce if the verb is passive, and the verb submit is active. In the second example, the adverb clause once it is submitted does reduce to once suinnitted because the clause is introduced by once and the verb is submitted is passive.

INVERT THE SUBJECT AND VERB WITH NEGATIVES

The subject and verb can also he inverted after certain negatives and related expressions. When negative expressions, such as no, not, or never; come at the beginning of a sentence, the subject and verb are inverted.

  1. Not once did I miss a question.
  2. Never has Mr. Jones taken a vacation.
  3. At no time can the woman talk on the telephone.

In the first example the negative expression not once causes the subject Ito come after the helping verb did.

In the second example the negative word never causes the subject Mr. Jones to come after the helping verb has.

In the last example the negative expression at no time causes the subject woman to come after the helping verb can.

Certain words in English, such as hardly, barely, scarcely, and only, act like negatives. If one of these words comes at the beginning of a sentence, the subject and verb are also inverted.

  • Hardly ever does he take time off.

(This means that he almost never takes time off.)

  • Only once did the manager issue overtime paychecks.

(This means that the manager almost never issued overtime paychecks.)

In the first example the “almost negative” expression hardly ever causes the subject he to come after the helping verb does.

In the second example the “almost negative” expression only once causes the subject manager to come after the helping verb did.

When a negative expression appears in front of a subject and verb in the middle of a sentence, the subject and verb are also inverted. This happens often with the negative words neither and nor.

  • I do not want to go, and neither does Tom.
  • The secretary is not attending the meeting, nor is her boss.

In the first example the negative neither causes the subject Tom to come after the helping verb does. In the second example the negative nor causes the subject boss to come after the verb is.

Only in extremely dangerous situations ——- stopped.

(A) will be the printing presses

(B) the printing presses will he

(C) that. the printing presses will be

(D) will the printing presses be

In this example you should notice that the sentence begins with the negative only, so an inverted subject and verb are needed. Answer. (D) contains a correctly inverted subject and verb, with the helping verb will, the subject printing presses, and the main verb be, so answer (D) is the best answer.

 

Reading 2

Effective Reading Strategies

ØSpend enough time to read the text several times.
ØProduce sound so that you can hear your voice at least
ØBe careful about all punctuations, such as:

–  comma (you must stop reading with rising intonation)

–  period (you must stop reading with falling intonation)

–  pause to take breath (stop anytime with rising intonation)

ØBe accustomed to writing summary in Indonesian.

Questions 1-10

 

Aspirin’s origins go back at least as early as 1758. In that year, Englishman Edward Stone noticed a distinctive bitter flavor in the bark of the willow tree. To Stone, this particular bark seemed to have much in common with “Peruvian Bark,” which had been used medicinally since the 1640s to bring down fevers and to treat malaria. Stone decided to test the effectiveness of the willow bark. He obtained some, pulverized it into tiny pieces, and conducted experiments on its properties. His tests demonstrated that this pulverized willow bark was effective both in reducing high temperatures and in relieving aches and pains. In 1763, Stone presented his findings to the British Royal Society.

Several decades later, further studies on the medicinal value of the willow bark were being conducted by two Italian scientists. These chemists, Brugnatelli and Fontana, determined that the active chemical that was responsible for the medicinal characteristics in the willow bark was the chemical salicin, which is the active ingredient of today’s aspirin.

The name “aspirin” is the trade name of the drug based on the chemical salicin, properly known as acetylsalicylic acid. The trade name “aspirin” was invented for the drug in the 1890s by the Bayer Drug Company in Germany. The first bottles of aspirin actually went on sale to the public just prior to the turn of the century, in 1899.

1.         According to the passage, aspirin originated

(A)   no later than 1758

(B)   sometime after 1758

(C)   definitely sometime in 1758

(D)   no earlier than 1758

2.         It can be inferred from the passage that Peruvian Bark

(A)   caused fevers

(B)   was ineffective in treating malaria

(C)   was described to the British Royal Society by Stone

(D)   was in use prior to aspirin

3.         The pronoun “it” in line 5 refers to

(A)   malaria

(B)   willow bark

(C)   effectiveness

(D)   the British Royal Society

4.         The word “properties” in line 6 could best be replaced by

(A)   ownership

(B)   body

(C)   characteristics

(D)   materials

5.         What did the willow bark look like after Stone prepared it for his experiments?

(A)   It was in large chunks.

(B)   It was a thick liquid.

(C)   It was a rough powder.

(D)   It was in strips of bark.

6.         The Italian chemists mentioned in the passage most probably conducted their studies on willow bark

(A)   in the 1750s

(B)   in the 1760s

(C)   in the 1770s

(D)   in the 1780s

7.         What is true about Brugnatelli and Fontana?

(A)   They were from Italy.

(B)   They added a chemical to the willow bark.

(C)   They conducted studies on the willow bark.

(D)   They were medical doctors.

8.         The expression “prior to” in line 14 could best be replaced by

(A)   at

(B)   before

(C)   during

(D)   after

9.         The word “turn” in line 15 could best be replaced by

(A)   spin

(B)   corner

(C)   change

(D)   reversal

10.       Where in the passage does the author name the scientific compound that makes up aspirin?

(A)   Lines 2-4

(B)   Line 7

(C)   Lines 8-9

(D)   Lines 14-15

 

 

 

Questions 11-20

Herman Melville, an American author best known today for his novel Moby Dick, was actually more popular during his lifetime for some of his other works. He traveled extensively and used the knowledge gained during his travels as the basis for his early novels. In 1837, at the age of eighteen, Melville signed as a cabin boy on a merchant ship that was to sail from his Massachusetts home to Liverpool, England. His experiences on this trip served as a basis for the novel Redburn (1849). In 1841 Melville set out on a whaling ship headed for the South Seas. After jumping ship in Tahiti, he wandered around the islands of Tahiti and Moorea. This South Sea island sojourn was a backdrop to the novel Omoo (1847). After three years away from home, Melville joined up with a U.S. naval frigate that was returning to the eastern United States around Cape Horn. The novel White Jacket (1850) describes this lengthy voyage as a navy seaman.

With the publication of these early adventure novels, Melville developed a strong and loyal following among readers eager for his tales of exotic places and situations. However, in 1851, with the publication of Moby Dick, Melville’s popularity started to diminish. Moby Dick, on one level the saga of the hunt for the great white whale, was also a heavily symbolic allegory of the heroic struggle of humanity against the universe. The public was not ready for Melville’s literary metamorphosis from romantic adventure to philosophical symbolism. It is ironic that the novel that served to diminish Melville’s popularity during his lifetime is the one for which he is best known today.

1.      The main subject of the passage is

(A)   Melville’s travels

(B)   the popularity of Melville’s novels

(C)   Melville’s personal background

(D)  Moby Dick

2.       According to the passage, Melville’s early novels were

(A)   published while he was traveling

(B)   completely fictional

(C)   all about his work on whaling ships

(D)  based on his travels

3.       In what year did Melville’s book about his experiences as a cabin boy appear?

(A)   1837

(B)   1841

(C)   1847

(D)  1849

4.       The word “basis” in line 3 is closest in meaning to

(A)   foundation

(B)   message

(C)   bottom

(D)  theme

5.       The passage implies that Melville stayed in Tahiti because

(A)    he had unofficially left his ship

(B)    he was on leave while his ship was in port

(C)    he had finished his term of duty

(D)   he had received permission to take a vacation in Tahiti

6.       A “frigate” in line 10 is probably

(A)    an office

(B)    a ship

(C)    a troop

(D)   a train

7.      How did the publication of Moby Dick affect Melville’s popularity?

(A)   His popularity increased immediately.

(B)   It had no effect on his popularity.

(C)   It caused his popularity to decrease.

(D)  His popularity remained as strong as ever.

8.       According to the passage, Moby Dick is

(A)    a romantic adventure

(B)    a single-faceted work

(C)    a short story about a whale

(D)   symbolic of humanity fighting the environment

9.       The word “metamorphosis” in line 15 is closest in meaning to

(A)    circle

(B)    change

(C)    mysticism

(D)   descent

10.   The passage would most likely be assigned reading in a course on

(A)    nineteenth-century novels

(B)    American history

(C)    Oceanography

(D)   modern American literature

Listening 2

1. Listening Part B is about Long Conversation between two people (man and woman or vise versa). At the end of the long conversation there will be several questions. Be careful about several things, they are the topic, place and names of places or people mentioned by the two people.

2. .Two long conversations, each followed by a number of multiple-choice questions, appear in Part B of the Listening Comprehension section of the paper TOEFL test. You will hear the conversations and the questions on a recording; they are not written in your test book. You must choose the best answer to each multiple-choice question from the four choices that are written in your test book.

Example

(narrator) Questions I through 4. Listen to a conversation between a Professor and a student.

 

(man)       Hello, Professor Denton. Are you free for a moment? Could I have a word                        with you?

(woman)       Come on in, Michael. Of course I have some time. These are my office

hours, and this is the right time for you to come and ask questions. Now,

how can I help you?

(man)        Well, I have a quick question for you about the homework assignment for

tomorrow. I thought the assignment was to answer the first three

questions at the top of page 67 in the text, but when I looked, there

weren’t any questions there. I’m confused.

(woman)       The assignment was to answer the first three questions at the top of page

76, not 67.

(man)        Oh, now I understand. I’m glad I came in to check. Thanks far your help.

(woman)       No problem. See you tomorrow.

 

Questions:

(narrator) Who is the man?

1.(A)  A professor

(B)  An office worker

(C)  Professor Denton’s assistant

(D)  A student

Exercise

PART B

1.      (A) to a concert

(B) to rehearsal

(C) to a lecture

(D) to the library

2.      (A) one

(B) two

(C) three

(D) four

3.      (A) the bus does not go directly to the music building

(B) the bus goes very slowly to the music building

(C) the bus sometimes does not come

(D) the bus will not arrive for a while

4.      (A) walk

(B) wait for the bus

(C) miss the lecture

(D) think of another plan

 

 

 

PART C

 

39.  (A) on the first day of class

(B) in the middle of the semester

(C) at the end of the class

(D) in the final week of the semester

40.  (A) later today

(B) by Friday of this week

(C) in two weeks

(D) in three weeks

41.  (A) journal and magazine articles

(B) books from outside the library

(C) books listed in student journals

(D) both books and journals

42.  (A) two

(B) three

(C) five

(D) seven

 

 

Structure 2

COMPARISON 

There are two comparative sentence. They are Comparative of Adjective and Comparative of Adverb

Comparative sentences often appear on toefl test. To complete this kind of questions, here below, I provide some keys that may help you to do that.                                                                                  

A.  An Adjective is a word that  modifies noun.

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Translation

Few

Tall

Cheap

Cold

Wide

Long

……………………………

……………………………

Near

Fewer

Taller

Cheaper

Colder

Wider

………………………….

Deeper

…………………………..

…………………………..

Fewest

Tallest

Cheapest

Coldest

Widest

…………………………..

…………………………..

Strongest

…………………………..

Sedikit

…………………….

…………………….

…………………….

…………………….

…………………….

…………………….

…………………….

…………………….

Difficult

Interesting

Dangerous

Accurate

Expensive

…………………………..

…………………………..

Complicated

realistic

More difficult

More interesting

More dangerous

More accurate

More expensive

More profitable

………………………….

………………………….

…………………………..

Most difficult

Most interesting

Most dangerous

Most accurate

Most expensive

…………………………..

Most powerful

……………………………

…………………………….

Sulit/sukar

…………………….

…………………….

…………………….

…………………….

…………………….

…………………….

…………………….

…………………….

 Many

Good

Bad

Far

Big

More

Better

Worse

Farther, further

Bigger

Most

Best

Worst

Farthest, furthest

Biggest

…………………….

…………………….

…………………….

…………………….

Two similar quality

 

as+ positive+ as...

Two different qualities

..comparative+than..

One of three or more different  qualities

the+ superlative….

 

Take a look at the following situation.

 

Situation A,

–          Kijang is 150 million rupiahs.

–          Escudo is 150 miilion rupiahs.

–          Avanza is 90 million rupiahs.

–          Blazer is 180 million rupiahs.

It means:

1.        Kijang is as expensive as Escudo.

2.        Escudo is as expensive as Kijang.

3.        Kijang is more expensive than Avanza.

4.        Blazer is more Expensive than Kijang.

5.        Avanza is cheaper than Escudo.

6.        Blazer is the most expensive of all (Kijang, Avanza, Escudo).

7.        Avanza is the cheapest of all.

Situation B,

–          Irianto is 20 years old.

–          Irianti is 20 years old.

–          Julianto is 21 years old.

–          Julianti is 22 years old.

It means:

  1. Irianto is as old as Irianti,    ………………………………………………………………………….
  2. Irianti is as old as Irianti, ……………………………………………………………………………..
  3. Julianto is older than Irianto, ……………………………………………………………………….
  4. Irianti is younger than Julianti, …………………………………………………………………….
  5. Irianto is younger than Julianti, ……………………………………………………………………
  6. Julianti is the oldest (of all), …………………………………………………………………………
  7. Irianto and Irianti are the youngest (of all), ………………………………..

 

B.    An Adverb is a word that  modifies verb.                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Generally, most adverbs are derived from adjective by adding suffix ‘ly’

  1. Adjective Adverb Translation
    Complete

    Slow

    High

    Accurate

    Rapid

    Kind

    Successful

    Strong

    Weak

    Individual

    Collective

    Beautiful

    Polite

    Calm

    Intensive

    Elaborate

    Wide

    Careful

    Regular

    Direct

    Ideal

    Wise

    Positive

    Gradual

    Hopeful

    Completely

    Slowly

    Highly

    Accurately

    Rapidly

    Kindly

    Successfully

    Strongly

    Weakly

    Individually

    Collectively

    Beautifully

    Politely

    Calmly

    Intensively

    Elaborately

    Widely

    Carefully

    Regularly

    Directly

    Ideally

    Wisely

    Positively

    Gradually

    Hopefully

    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

    ………………………………….

    ………………………………….

    ………………………………….

    ………………………………….

    ………………………………….

    Fast

    Hard

    Late

    Fast

    Hard

    Late

    …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
    Good Well ………………………………….

     

    Positive Comparative Superlative translation
    Politely

    Widely

    Carefully

    Strongly

    Actively

    Deadly

    Practically

    More politely

    More widely

    More carefully

    More strongly

    ……………………….

    ……………………….

    ……………………….

    Most politely

    Most widely

    Most carefully

    Most strongly

    ………………………….

    ………………………….

    ………………………….

    ……………………….

    ……………………….

    ……………………….

    ……………………….

    ……………………….

    ……………………….

    ……………………….

    Well

    Badly

    Early

    Better

    More badly

    Earlier

    Best

    Most badly

    Earliest

    ……………………….

    ……………………….

    ……………………….

    Situation A,                                                                                                                               13

    –          Firmansyah arrives at 8 a.m. in Indonusa.

    –          Henny arrives at 8 a.m. in Indonusa.

    –          Suciati arrives at 7.30 a.m. in Indonusa.

    –          Wahyu arrives at 7 a.m. in Indonusa.

     

    It means:

    1.        Firmansyah arrives as early as Henny does.

    2.        Henny arrives as early as Firmansyah does.

    3.        Suciaty arrives earlier than Henny.

    4.        Wahyu arrives the earliest of all.

     

    Situation B,

    –          We work from morning to afternoon.

    –          They work from morning to evening.

    –          You work from morning to evening.

    –          Darmawan works from morning to night.

     

    It means:

    1.      They work as long as you do.

    2.      We work longer than you do.

    3.      Darmawan works the longest of all.

Example on Toefl

1. Interest rate in private banks_____________than in  government banks.

(A) is high

(B) is more high

(C) is higher

(D) is highest

2.  Advertisement cost in 2004________in 2003.

(A) is as much as

(B) was as many as

(C) are as many as

(D) were as much as

Reading 1

Description

  1. Reading Comprehension (multiple choice): To demonstrate their ability to understand written English, examinees must answer questions about the meanings of words and ideas in reading passages.
  2. 1.      Reading Comprehension consists of fifty questions (some tests may be longer).

    2.      Generally, you only have fifty five minutes to complete this section.

    3.      Topics of reading passage are varied, such as: American History, literature, art, architecture, geology, geography, economics, law and astronomy.

    4.      Many participants are unable to finish this section because of time.

    5.      Sometimes, it is more efficient to learn the questions first then read the passage.

    Examples

Most people would say that the world’s tallest mountain is Mount Everest. This mountain, in the Himalaya, is just over 20,000 feet high. However, if the mountains are measured a bit little differently, then the tallest mountain on Earth is Mauna Kea, in the Hawaiian Islands. Mauna Kea is only about 14,000 feet above the sea level, so in comparison to Mount Everest, it just does not look anywhere near as high as Mount Everest to a person standing at sea level. Mauna Kea, however, does not begin at sea level. It rises from an ocean floor that is more than 16,000 feet below the surface of the water. This mountain therefore measures more that 30,000 feet from its base to the top, making it a higher mountain than Mount Everest.

  1. 01. The main idea of this passage is that,

    (A) Mount Everest is the world’s tallest mountain.

    (B) Mount Everest and Mauna Kea are located in different parts of the world.

    (C) Mauna Kea’s base is below sea level.

    (D) Mauna Kea could be considered the tallest mountain in the world.

    02. Which of the following is not mentioned about Mount Everest?

    (A) many people believe it the world’s tallest mountain.

    (B) it is part of Himalaya.

    (C) it is over 29,000 feet.

    (D) it rises from the ocean floor.

    03. The passage indicates that Mauna Kea,

    (A) measures 16,000 feet from the top.

    (B) is completed covered with water.

    (C) is more than half covered by water.

    (D) is 1,000 feet shorter than Mount Everest.

    04. It is implied in the passage that Mauna Kea does not seem as tall as Mount Everest, because

    (A) people do not want to look as it is.

    (B) part of Mauna Kea is under water.

    (C) Mount Everest has more snow.

    (D) Mauna Kea is in a different part of the world from Mount Everest.

    05. The word floor in the third paragraph could be replaced by;

    (A) bottom

    (B) carpet

    (C) roof

    (D) water

     

Interest is the sum charged for borrowing money for a fixed period of time. Principal is the term used for the money that is borrowed, and the rate of interest is the percent per year of the principal charged for its use. Most of the profits for a bank are derived from the interest that they charge for the use of their own or their depositors’ money. All problems in interest may be solved by using the general equation that may be stated as follows:

                                Interest = Principal x Rate x Time

Any one of the four quantities – that is, principal, interest, rate, or time – may be found when the other three are known. The time is expressed in years. The rate is expressed as decimal fraction. Thus, six percent interest means, six cents charged for the use of $1 of principal borrowed for one year, although the time may be less than one year. For purposes of computing interest for short periods, the commercial year or 360 days is commonly used, but when large sums of money are involved, exact interest is computed on the basis of 365 days.

06. With what topic is this passage primarily concerned?

(A).   Profits

(B).   Rate

(C).   Interest

(D).   Principal

07.   The word “Sum” in the first paragraph could be replaced by.

(A).   Amount

(B).   Institution

(C).   Customer

(D).   Formula

08.  The word “Fixed” in the first paragraph is closest in meaning to

(A).   Short

(B).    Definite

(C).    Repeated

(D).    Trial

09. The word “Its” in the first paragraph refers to

(A).   Principal

(B).   Percent

(C).   Rate

(D).   Interest

10. At four percent interest for the use of $1 principal. How much would one pay?

(A).    Six cents per year

(B).    Twenty five cents per year

 (C).    Four cents per year

(D).    One cent per year

11. Which of the following would be a correct expression of an interest rate as stated in the

equation for computing interest?

(A).    Four

(B).    0.4

(C).    4.4

(D).    4/100

11      Most applications for loans are for,

(A).    One year

(B).    Less than one year

(C).    More than one year

(D).    360 days

2.      The word “Periods” in the third paragraph refers to,                                                                39

(A).   Time

(B).    Loans

(C).    Applications

(D).    interest

3.      A commercial year is used to compute,

(A).   Exact interest

(B).    Interest on large sums of money

(C).    Interest on a large principal

(D).   Interest for short period of time

4.      Which of the following is the best definition of interest?

(A).    Money borrowed

(B).    Rate x Time

(C).    A fee paid for the money

(D).   The number of years a bank allow a borrower on order to repay a loan

 

Listening 1

Description

  1. Listening Comprehension (multiple choice): To demonstrate heir ability to understand spoken English, examinees must listen to a tape and respond to various types of questions.
  2. This section consists of fifty questions (some test may be longer).

    Remember you can hear the tape one time only, and the material on the tape is not written in your test book.

    There are three parts in the Listening Comprehension section of the TOEFL test:

    A.        Part A consists of thirty short conversations, each followed by a question. You must choose the best answer to each question from the four choices in your test book.

    B.        Part B consists of two long conversations, each followed by a number of questions. You must choose the best answer to each question from the four choices in your test book.

    C.        Part C consists of three talks, each followed by a number of questions. You must choose the best answer to each question from the four choices in your test book.

    Strategies :

    1.        Be familiar to all directions so that you do not need to learn them on exam. As a result you can save your time efficiently.

    2.        Since there is no repetition, listen carefully to the conversation on the tape.

    3.        Never leave any answers in blank on your answer sheet, because there is no penalty on guessing.

    4.        Try to identify the types of questions, such as ;

    • What does the man or the woman mean?
    • Where does this conversation probably take place?
    • What does the man or the woman suggest?
    • What is inferred from the dialog?
    • What does the man imply?
    • Who is the man?
    • What will the man probably do next?
    • What does the woman say about……..?

     

    THE LISTENING PART A QUESTIONS

    Notes :

    a.     Thirty short conversations with thirty questions.

    b.    The conversation is between man and woman or vice versa then focus on the second speaker more.

    c.      Generally, questions no 1 through 5 will be the easiest, and questions no 26 through 30 will be the hardest.

    d.    Find out the key words in the conversation.

    e.      Before listening to the conversation, take a look first at the four possible answers.

  3. Examples:                                                                                                                               18                                                                                                                              

    1.   On the recording you hear:

    (man)  I’ve always wanted to visit Hawaii with you.

    (Woman)   Why not next month?

    (Narrator)   What does the woman mean?

    In your test book, you read

    (A)   next month isn’t a good time for the trip.

    (B)   she doesn’t want to go to Hawaii.

    (C)   she suggests taking the trip next month.

    (D)   she is curious about why he doesn’t want to go.

    The best answer is (C)

    2.      (man)   I would like to deposit this check in my account, please.

    (woman)  Would you like any cash back?

    (narrator)  Who is the woman?

    (A)    a store clerk

    (B)    a bank teller

    (C)    an accountant

    (D)    a lawyer

    (B) is the correct answer since the key words are deposit and check

    3.  (woman)  Did you get the breads, eggs, and milk?

    (man)  Now we need to stand in line at the checkout counter!

    (narrator)  Where does the conversation probably take place?

    (A)  in a restaurant

    (B)   at a bakery

    (C)   on a farm

    (D)  in a market

    (D) is the correct answer since the key words are stand and checkout counter

    4.  (Woman)   Was anyone at home at Barb’s house when you went there to deliver     the package?

    (man)    I rang the bell, but no one answered.

    (narrator)   What does the man imply?

    (A) Barb answered the bell.

    (B) The house was probably empty.

    (C) The bell wasn’t in the house.

    (D) The house doesn’t have the bell.

    5.       (man) We’re planning to leave for the trip at about 2.00.

    (woman) Couldn’t we leave before noon?

    (narrator) What does the woman ask?

    (A) if they could leave at noon

    (B) if it is possible to go by 12.00

    (C) why they can’t leave at noon

    (D) if they could leave the room

  4. Complete The exercise 1, 2 and 3
  5.