Reading Comprehension is the third section of Toefl. Here below, some essential notes are available in order to make good preparation.
1. Reading Comprehension consists of fifty questions (some tests may be longer).
2. Generally, you only have fifty five minutes to complete this section.
3. Topics of reading passage are varied, such as: American History, literature, art, architecture, geology, geography, economics, astronomy, music, sport, biology, law, physics, Chemistry, Biography, Invention, health etc.
4. It is rarely found two similar topics at the same exam.
5. Many participants confess that they are unable to finish this section because of limited time.
6. Sometimes, it is more efficient to learn the questions first then read the passage.
7. Characteristics of questions:
– Topic, main idea, title
– Closest in meaning
– Referring to
– Is not true
8. Additional notes:
– Pay attention to the first line of every paragraph.
– Read carefully about names of people or places in the passage.
– Be careful about number mentioned.
Reading Comprehension (1)
The three phases of human memory are the sensory memory, the short-term memory and the long-term memory. This division of memory into phases is based on the length of time of the memory. Sensory memory is instantaneous memory. It is an image or memory that enters your mind only for a short period of time; it comes and goes in under a second. The memory will not last longer than that unless the information enters the short-term memory.
Information can be held in the short-term memory for about twenty seconds or as long as you are actively using it. If you repeat a fact to yourself, that fact will stay in your short-term memory as long as you keep repeating it. Once you stop repeating it, either it is forgotten or it moves to long-term memory.
Long-term memory is a huge memory tank that can hold ideas and images for years and years. Information can be added to your long-term memory when you actively try to put it there through memorization or when an idea or image enters your mind on its own.
1. The best title of this passage would be;
a. the difference between sensory and short-term memory.
b. how long it takes to memorize.
c. the stage of human memory.
d. human phases.
2. The three phases of memory discussed in the passage are differentiated according to,
a. the location in the brain.
b. the period of time it takes to remember something.
c. how the senses are involved in the memory.
d. how long the memory lasts.
3. The expression ‘is based on’ in the line 3 could be replaced by,
a. is on the top of.
b. is at the foot of.
c. depends on.
d. is below.
4. According to the passage, which type of memory is the shortest?
a. sensory memory.
b. active memory.
c. short-term memory.
d. long-term memory.
5. According to the passage, when will the information stay in your short-term memory?
a. for as long as twenty minutes.
b. as long as it is being used.
c. after you have repeated it many times.
d. when it has moved into long-term memory.
6. The word ‘keep’ in line 10 could be replaced by,
Reading Comprehension (2)
Coca-Cola was invented in 1886, by Atlanta pharmacist John S. Pemberton. The name for the product was actually proposed by Pemberton’s assistant, Frank Robinson. The name was taken from the two unusual ingredients in the drink, the South American coca leaf and the African cola nut.
The recipe for today’s Coca-Cola is very well guarded. Many of the ingredients are known. In addition to coca leaves and cola nut, they include lemon, orange, lime, cinnamon, vanilla and sugar. The proportion of the ingredients and the identity of Coke’s secret ingredients are known only by a few senior corporate officers of Coca-Cola Company.
1. According to the passage, who created Coca-Cola?
(A) The Coca-Cola company
(B) John S. Pemberton
(C) Pemberton’s assistant
(D) Frank Robinson
2. The word “unusual” in paragraph one is closest in meaning to
3. The passage states that the recipe for Coca-Cola is
(B) known only by a limited number of people
(D) published information
4. Which of the following is NOT true about Coca-Cola?
(A) the name “coca” comes from coca leaf
(B) the name “cola” comes from cola nut
(C) Frank Robinson suggested the name
(D) The inventor came up with the name
5. The word “senior” in the second paragraph could be replaced by
(B) high level
(C) more mature
(D) the owner