WRITING INDONESIAN SUMMARY
Another objective of Business English Subject is to guide students in order to comprehend English passages dealing with their majors so that they will be accustomed to some technical terms. Furthermore, we do hope that they will be able to read textbooks and any other scientific writings.
There are several steps students have to follow. They are:
- They need to spend much time to read a passage several times. It is better to produce sound while reading. All punctuations and comfortable reading speed should be considered. For a non-native the comfortable speed is around 90 – 100 words per minute. It is less effective to read too fast.
- They have to know that a paragraph consists of one main topic only. Generally, the writers put it in the first sentence, some prefer to state in the middle and a few tend to place in the last sentence of every paragraph. In other words, the remaining sentences are so-called supported sentences. They function to give more detail information towards main topic. Sometimes, main topic is also called main idea or topic sentence.
- Usually, they meet some new vocabularies in a passage. It is not necessary to consult dictionary any time new vocabulary exists. They just underline and try to guess the meaning or there will be an explanation in the next sentences.
- Having read the passage, they need to translate it in order to get the meaning as a whole. Remember, there are two ways to translate a sentence or a paragraph. First, you translate word by word. The translation will be based on lexical meaning. Most sentences can be translated through this first way. Second, you just get the main point of the sentence or the paragraph. In doing this, sometimes you have to add some new words or you do not have to translate certain words. This way will be useful, if the first way does not produce effective translation.
- Writing summary is different with translating. Summary does not mean you start from the first line until the last. Instead, writing summary means that you review the main points only. You may star from the middle or from the last line. It depends on your own style. Another advantage of writing summary is that even though you find some new vocabularies in the passage, you still be able to make summary.
Take a look at and read the following passage,
In Japan, there is a close relationship between the worker and his company. Employees work hard and do hours of unpaid overtime to make their firms more efficient. If necessary, they give up weekends with their family to go on business trips. They are loyal to their organizations and totally involved with them. For example, many of them live in company houses and their friends are people they work with. The system of lifetime employment creates a strong link between the enterprise and its workforce. It covers about 35 % of the working population. Generally, when a person joins a firm after leaving high school or university, he expects to stay with the firm until he retires. He has a secure job for life. Therefore, he will not be laid off if the company no longer needs him because there is no more work. Instead, it will re-train him for another post
The pay of the worker depends on his seniority, that is to say, on the years he has been with the firm. The longer he stays with the firm, the higher his salary will be. When he is 30 or 40 years old, therefore, he cannot afford to change jobs. If he did move, he would also lose valuable fringe benefits. Promotion depends on seniority as well. Japanese managers are rarely very young, and chief executives are at least 60, and very often 70 years old. The Japanese have a special way of making decisions. They call it the consensus system. This is how it works. When a firm is thinking of taking a certain action, it encourages workers at all levels to discuss the proposal and give their opinions. The purpose is to reach consensus (general agreement). As soon as everyone agrees on the right course of actions, the decision is taken. Because of this method, a group of workers rather than one person is responsible for company policies. One advantage of this is that decision comes from a mixture of experience from the top, the middle and the bottom of an enterprise. Another advantage is that junior staff frequently suggests ideas for change. A disadvantage, perhaps, is that decision-making.
Indonesian summary :
Pada wacana tersebut dijelaskan bahwa di perusahaan-perusahaan Jepang tenaga kerja sangat dihargai oleh pemilik perusahaan. Hubungan baik tercipta antara karyawan dan pimpinan. Pada umumnya sistem bekerja seumur hidup diberlakukan bukan bekerja berdasarkan kontrak. Itu sebabnya, para pekerja Jepang dikenal dengan sifat-sifat seperti : kerja keras, patuh, disiplin, mampu bekerjasama dan menghargai senioritas. Gaji dan kesempatan untuk promosi ditentukan berdasarkan lamanya seseorang bekerja. Artinya, semakin lama dia bekerja di satu perusahaan, semakin tinggi gaji yang diterima. Oleh karenanya, orang Jepang tidak suka bekerja berpindah-pindah dari satu perusahaan ke perusahaan lain. Hal lain adalah untuk menjadi seorang pemimpin faktor usia menjadi sangat penting, umumnya antara 60 – 70 tahun. Dalam mengambil keputusan biasanya agak lambat, karena melibatkan semua unit.