Category Archives: Business English

WRITING APPLICATION LETTER

A. Introduction

Frankly speaking, all graduates can be classified into two groups. First, those who want to run their own businesses (job creators) and second, those who want to look for job vacancies (job seekers). It is said that more than 90 % of the graduates belong to the second classification. This is caused by several main reasons : 1) they want to earn money as soon as possible, 2) they lack of qualifications as employers such as: leadership and managerial tasks, 3) they prefer low to high risk.

Dealing with the above brief description, we could say that application letter takes a great role for the success of job seekers. They need to know characteristics of good application letter and all its other essential elements, even though good application letter does not guarantee that they get jobs absolutely.

B. Types of Application Letter

Commonly, there are three types of application letter, namely; 1) application as a reply to advertisement; 2) application based on recommendation; 3) application based on initiative of the applicants. In other words, anytime applicants may send application letter as long as it is a private company. It is said that most working people get jobs through the first type, but the second type has strong possibility to be accepted.

C. Further Notes about Application Letter

– Application letter is a means of communication used by an applicant to keep in touch with the employer.

– As representative an applicant has to consider three important elements. They are quality of paper, tone and content.

– Employers are not interested with long application letter for they are very busy. Therefore, one page is recommended.

– Remember, it is not polite to say thanks at the end of the letter. It is said that English people will say thanks if they get something.

– The main philosophy of submitting application is not to apply the job itself. Instead, it will ask the employer to offer a chance of job interview. In order to get more detail information, let you open your module pages32 – 35.

– About CV Writing, you may design by yourself and compare with your module page 40.

– Examples of application letter can be found in your module pages 37 and 38.

How to make effective presentation

HOW TO MAKE EFFECTIVE PRESENTATION

Here are some essential notes you have to consider dealing with effective presentation.

1.      Many people assume that presentation is very difficult especially if it is in a foreign language. Sometimes it is likely similar with someone who is in a stressful or frightening situation when he meets a dentist. However, presentation is not very difficult as long as you know what you are expected to do and make a better preparation.

2.      In the previous session, we have already discussed that presentation means standing in front of people (audience) in order to give certain information. Someone who gives information is called presenter or speaker while people who listen to information are called audiences.

3.      In a broader sense, we may conclude that presentation skill is a must for you as an intellectual people regardless your majors. Moreover, this competency is really required  in work place.  

4.     Generally, most people prefer listening to making presentation, but a few have different point of view. Some can be neither presenter nor listener.

5.      Let you learn your module page 46 – 50. There you will find two important things to make effective presentation. They are, first, what you are going to present. It means the title of your presentation. A new presenter commonly adjusts his title or topic with the need of his prospect audiences (calon pendengar). To do that a presenter had better try to gather information as much as possible about his prospective audience before choosing a title. Information includes age, status, job, educational background, religion, culture etc. The topic itself is divided into INTRODUCTION, BODY, and CONCLUSION. Needless to say, some people believe that introduction and conclusion are more important. Second, how you are presenting the topic. It is so-called delivery. Eye-contact, voice and posture relaxed are parts of delivery. Even though, many people say that delivery is more important than topic, but effective presentation may not ignore one of the two factors.

6.     There are some important points you have to mention on INTRODUCTION. They are : greetings, self introduction, thanks, topic, reason why you are interested to choose it, parts of your presentation, and certain rules whether or not you let the audience interrupt you to ask questions. Next, I will show you a simple draft of INTRODUCTION:                               

Good afternoon everybody. My name is Rudi Saputra. I come from Faculty of Communication, majoring Public Relation. My registration number is 200958089.  First of all, I want to say thanks to Mr. Laris as my Business English lecture. Next, I also say thanks to all my friends who follow my presentation well. Today I want to talk about the roles of PR. I choose this topic, because there are many people who do not know the role of PR.  In the first part of my presentation I will tell you the definition of PR, after that I will explain about history of PR, then I will move to PR’s classifications, next I will talk much about PR’s role and finally before I stop my presentation, I will take some conclusions. I will be very happy if you ask me at the end of my presentation. Let me start.

7.     Give complete information on BODY of your presentation. You need to explain every main parts of your topic. A presenter will spend most of his time in this part. Sometimes a presenter will show some examples and make comparison dealing with topic.

8.     Never stop your presentation without taking conclusion. It is said that conclusion is the most important part of a presentation. Frankly speaking, there is no new information on conclusion. A homely way to make conclusion is to review the main point on body only. Long conclusion is sometimes less effective to audience.

9.      How to design slide? Slide is really needed on presentation. Slide is a helpful tool for a presenter to deliver information to audience. In other words, slide does not make presentation, but contains the main points of the whole presentation. Therefore using to many slides may take over the role of a presenter.  On final semester exam every student is allowed to prepare two slides only, not more than that. You have to know that slide does not contain all information about the topic.  What you have to put on your slide are : one title or topic, 4-5 Sub-titles, conclusion (2-3 short sentences), name, registration number and faculty.  Take a look at the examples below :

                 One,                          

                                     CORRUPTION IN INDONESIA IN 2000s      

                     I          Definition         

                     II         Types of Corruption

                     III        Causes of Corruption

                     IV       Act about Corruption

                     V        Case

                     VII     Conclusion

1.     ________________________________________

2.     ________________________________________

3.     ________________________________________

                                      

Two,

                                               Marketing Function

              I     Definition

              II   History and Elements of marketing

              III   Function

             IV   Examples

              V    Conclusion

1.     ___________________________________

2.     ___________________________________

3.     ___________________________________

4.     ___________________________________

 

10.      Another important thing you have to remember is KEEP TO THE TIME. It means before starting a presentation you have to know well how long you are given the time to deliver introduction, body and conclusion. Having known the available time, you need to divide your time, how long (many minutes) you will spend on introduction, on body and an conclusion.  Generally, it is better less than one minute than more than one minute to stop a presentation.

Writing Paragraph

About Writing Paragraph

  1. Writing Competency is the third part of mastering a foreign language besides speaking and reading. Someone who can speak fluently does not mean that he can write easily or vise versa. What important things in writings are  possessing a lot of vocabulary and mastering sentence pattern.
  2. A paragraph is a group of sentences, that has one main idea with several supporting sentences. Most writers put the main idea in the beginning of every paragraph, some prefer placing it in the middle and a few write it in the last sentence. Supporting sentences functions to give complete information about the topic sentences. Sometimes, main idea is also called topic sentence.
  3. A sentence is a group of wards that has complete meaning. A sentence must be correct in structure and diction.
  4. In writing a paragraph we should be able to differentiate formal writing or informal one. Most business activities require formal rather than informal writing.
  5. An effective paragraph consists of 50 to 150 words. Then in one paragraph there should be at least three sentences. In general it is recommended that you apply simple and short sentences in writing paragraph. Short sentences are usually around 10 – 20 words.
  6. However, writing a paragraph is not an easy task for many people especially for a beginner.
  7. Steps to write a paragraph, first : you have to choose an appropriate topic or title.  Title is the central point of the whole paragraph. Sometimes it is better you choose a simple topic rather than the complicated one. Second, determine the main points of your paragraph orderly. What should you write first then, the next and so on. Third, make sure that you get the main purpose of your writing whether you want to inform, to describe, to report, to persuade, to claim, to propose, etc.

For example:

Esa Unggul University

Esa Unggul University is a private university, which is located at 9, Jalan Arjuna West Jakarta. It was established in 1994. There are around 10,000 students of several faculties. Many of them take morning class and the remaining join the evening class. Students are very active and they have close relationship with all lecturers and staff. The facilities are complete and these make them eager to learn in order to be graduated on time. Every year, this university receives new students and graduates around 800 students as well. Among other private university in West Jakarta, Esa Unggul has good reputation and is assumed as a prominent university in future.

Note   :    The bold part is called as topic sentence and the remaining sentences are called supported sentences.

 

Writing Indonesian Summary

WRITING INDONESIAN SUMMARY

Another objective of Business English Subject is to guide students in order to comprehend English passages dealing with their majors so that they will be accustomed to some technical terms. Furthermore, we do hope that they will be able to read textbooks and any other scientific writings.

There are several steps students have to follow. They are:

  1. They need to spend much time to read a passage several times. It is better to produce sound while reading. All punctuations and comfortable reading speed should be considered. For a non-native the comfortable speed is around 90 – 100 words per minute. It is less effective to read too fast.
  2. They have to know that a paragraph consists of one main topic only. Generally, the writers put it in the first sentence, some prefer to state in the middle and a few tend to place in the last sentence of every paragraph. In other words, the remaining sentences are so-called supported sentences. They function to give more detail information towards main topic. Sometimes, main topic is also called main idea or topic sentence.
  3. Usually, they meet some new vocabularies in a passage. It is not necessary to consult dictionary any time new vocabulary exists. They just underline and try to guess the meaning or there will be an explanation in the next sentences.
  4. Having read the passage, they need to translate it in order to get the meaning as a whole. Remember, there are two ways to translate a sentence or a paragraph. First, you translate word by word. The translation will be based on lexical meaning. Most sentences can be translated through this first way. Second, you just get the main point of the sentence or the paragraph. In doing this, sometimes you have to add some new words or you do not have to translate certain words. This way will be useful, if the first way does not produce effective translation.
  5. Writing summary is different with translating. Summary does not mean you start from the first line until the last. Instead, writing summary means that you review the main points only. You may star from the middle or from the last line. It depends on your own style. Another advantage of writing summary is that even though you find some new vocabularies in the passage, you still be able to make summary.

Example

Take a look at and read the following passage,

In Japan, there is a close relationship between the worker and his company. Employees work hard and do hours of unpaid overtime to make their firms more efficient. If necessary, they give up weekends with their family to go on business trips. They are loyal to their organizations and totally involved with them. For example, many of them live in company houses and their friends are people they work with. The system of lifetime employment creates a strong link between the enterprise and its workforce. It covers about 35 % of the working population. Generally, when a person joins a firm after leaving high school or university, he expects to stay with the firm until he retires. He has a secure job for life. Therefore, he will not be laid off if the company no longer needs him because there is no more work. Instead, it will re-train him for another post

The pay of the worker depends on his seniority, that is to say, on the years he has been with the firm. The longer he stays with the firm, the higher his salary will be. When he is 30 or 40 years old, therefore, he cannot afford to change jobs. If he did move, he would also lose valuable fringe benefits. Promotion depends on seniority as well. Japanese managers are rarely very young, and chief executives are at least 60, and very often 70 years old. The Japanese have a special way of making decisions. They call it the consensus system. This is how it works. When a firm is thinking of taking a certain action, it encourages workers at all levels to discuss the proposal and give their opinions. The purpose is to reach consensus (general agreement). As soon as everyone agrees on the right course of actions, the decision is taken. Because of this method, a group of workers rather than one person is responsible for company policies. One advantage of this is that decision comes from a mixture of experience from the top, the middle and the bottom of an enterprise. Another advantage is that junior staff frequently suggests ideas for change. A disadvantage, perhaps, is that decision-making.

 

Indonesian summary :

Pada wacana tersebut dijelaskan bahwa di perusahaan-perusahaan Jepang tenaga kerja sangat dihargai oleh pemilik perusahaan. Hubungan baik tercipta antara karyawan dan pimpinan. Pada umumnya sistem bekerja seumur hidup diberlakukan bukan bekerja berdasarkan kontrak. Itu sebabnya, para pekerja Jepang dikenal dengan sifat-sifat seperti : kerja keras, patuh, disiplin, mampu bekerjasama dan menghargai senioritas. Gaji dan kesempatan untuk promosi ditentukan berdasarkan lamanya seseorang bekerja. Artinya, semakin lama dia bekerja di satu perusahaan, semakin tinggi gaji yang diterima. Oleh karenanya, orang Jepang tidak suka bekerja berpindah-pindah dari satu perusahaan ke perusahaan lain. Hal lain adalah untuk menjadi seorang pemimpin faktor usia menjadi sangat penting, umumnya antara 60 – 70 tahun. Dalam mengambil keputusan biasanya agak lambat, karena melibatkan semua unit.

Pre-Test

Pre-test is given to students prior to mid term exam. It consists of the three main parts of TOEFL namely: Listening Comprehension, Structure and Written Expression, and Reading Comprehension. Having completed Pre-test, they will be able to evaluate their prediction Toefl Scores. Moreover, they can make more preparation in certain parts of toefl if it is necessary. In addition, they will be able to divide their time efficiently and practice using all learned strategies.

More Detail about Presentation

MORE  DETAILED  ABOUT  PRESENTATION

 Here below, I summarize the essential points about PRESENTATION dealing with my lecture. Please learn as important things for final semester exam.

1.    Presentation means standing in front of people.

2.    Someone who does a presentation is called PRESENTER and people who join presentation are called audience.

3.    A presenter would like to give information to audience.

4.    There are two important factors to make effective presentation. They are : What are we going to present? (TOPIC) and How are we presenting the topic. (DELIVERY)

5.    Topic is divided into three main points, namely: INTRODUCTION, BODY, and CONCLUSION.

  • A new presenter will adjust the topic with his prospective audience’s demand.
  • A presenter will start a presentation with introduction and end the presentation with conclusion.
  • Conclusion is the most important information given to audience.

6.    Delivery consists of : eye-contact, voice and posture relaxed.

  • A presenter will keep eye contact to all audience.
  • A presenter will try not to turn back the audience.
  • A presenter must speak loudly so that every audience cam hear his voice clearly.
  • Speaking too fast on presentation could be assumed that the presenter is nervous. Consequently, the audience will not be able to comprehend his explanation. On the other hand, speaking too slowly may cause the audience fall asleep.
  • A comfortable speed for non-native audience is 90 words per minute, whereas for native audience is 110 to 120 words.
  • Body language could add information on presentation.

 

7.    A presenter must keep to the time. He must know well how long the time is given.

8.    It is better less than one minute than more than one minute.

9.    A presenter will try to avoid any mistake on presentation especially in taking conclusion. To do this a presenter had better provide the conclusion in notes.

10.                       Do not use too many slides on presentation. Remember, slide is a visual aid. It does not make presentation.

11.                       Practice a lot until you feel that you are have been well prepared.

12.                       Do not look at the ceiling or floor.

13.                       Gather information about your prospective audience, such as : age, job, religion, education, culture, etc.

14.                       Do not memorize your presentation.

15.                       Avoid producing useless sound on presentation.

16.                        There are three ways to overcome stage fright, namely : take deep breath, relaxation and laughing.

17.                       If possible, do not stay in place only.

18.                       There is no new information on conclusion. It is the review of main points in body.

19.                       Sometimes, gesture is impolite for higher level.

20.                       Do not ask apology for not being prepared.

21.                       A presenter must have self confidence.

22.                       Make sure you know the topic better than the audience.

23.                       Use asking and answering session to give more information.

24.                       One way to anticipate question is “Do not give complete information on certain parts”.

25.                       Do not answer question that is not corresponding with the title.

26.                       Silence is death on presentation.

Take A look at the following complete draft of presentation

 

This morning I’d like to talk about the importance of having marketing strategy for a new consumer product. It is important because it will greatly increase your chances of success. I’ll be talking about three things: First, conducting market research, then designing the product and finally having a sales campaign. If your product has a good design but is not what your customers want, then no one will be interested to buy it. Therefore, you have to find out the type of product people want before designing it. There are two ways you can conduct research. First, you can mail out questionnaires to people’s home. Second, you can survey people at stores and shopping centers. After that, when designing a new product you have to consider both customers want and production costs. If you know what type of product your customers want but production costs are too high, you will lose money if you try to make it. Therefore, you have to be able to design a product people want and keep production cost down. In order to get people interested in your new product you should have a sales campaign. There are three major methods of reaching your customers: TV / Radio, newspapers and direct mailings. Finally, several months before your new product is ready for sale, you should begin running commercials on TV introducing it to people. I’ve talked about three important strategies in marketing new product, they are: conducting research to determine what people want, designing products based on customer wants and having sales campaign to get people interested in buying the product. If you follow these three steps, your chances of success will be greatly increased. Thank you for listening.

Effective Presentation Tips

 Above all know your audience and match what you say to their needs. Creating your presentation with your audience in mind, will assure that your audience will follow you. If your presentation doesn’t appeal to your audience – no matter how well you have developed your presentation – your presentation will fall on deaf ears. This leads us to the next rule: Know your material thoroughly. Your material needs to be second nature to you. Practice and rehearse your presentation with friends, in front of a mirror, and with colleagues. If you are speaking in a second language, make sure that you record yourself and listen a number of times before going to practice with a native speaker (if possible). Remember that you are an actor when presenting. Make sure that not only your physical appearance is appropriate to the occasion, but also the tone you use is well chosen. If your topic is serious, be solemn. However, it’s always a good idea to begin your presentation with an ice-breaker. Don’t worry about making friends, rather lead the audience through your materials in a calm and relaxed manner. Speak slowly and clearly, and remember to address everyone in the audience – even the person the farthest away from you. To achieve the above goals follow these tips when giving your presentation:

1.      Speak with conviction. Believe what you are saying and you will persuade your audience.

2.      Do not read from notes. Referring to notes is fine, but do so only briefly.

3.      Maintain eye contact with your audience. Making direct eye contact with individuals will help them feel as if they are participating in your presentation.

4.      Know when to stop. This cannot be underestimated. You need to make your case, but continuing for too long will only ensure that the audience forgets what you have said.

 

Writing Paragraph

Writing Competency is the third part of mastering a foreign language besides speaking and reading. Someone who can speak fluently does not mean that he can write well and vise versa. What important things in writings are vocabulary and sentence pattern.

A paragraph is a group of sentences, that has one main idea with several supporting sentences. Most writers put the main idea in the beginning of every paragraph, some prefer placing it in the middle and a few write it in the last sentence. Supporting sentences functions to give complete information about the topic sentences.

 Writing a paragraph is not an easy task for many people especially for a beginner. It needs some steps as described in the following paragraphs.

 FOCUS

Focus makes a clear point. It says something that the writer believes is important. Paragraph without a clearly focused topic sentence will be confusing. Look at the example.

My attic (Draft)

 My attic is at the very top of the house, high above my bedroom. The door to attic is in my closet. I climb through this door at least once a week. It is incredibly quite in th attic. The thick white pads of insulation prevent voices or sounds from coming in. It is also quite dark. There is only one light bulb in the wooden  rafters and it sends down a thin beam of yellow light. However, this is enough light for me to read my sports books or write in my journal. Often I just sit back and inhale the musty smell of the dust and mold on the walls and floors. The dust is so thick that I can almost taste it. There is one window in the attic, but it is so covered with grime and thick dust that hardly any light seeps in from outside. Even though I am at the highest point in the house, my attic feels like a cave. Like a bear, I’m glad I have my own cave.

Note: The writer did not accomplish his purpose: he didn’t communicate his main impression of his room.

The writer mentioned three potential focuses: The attic is “quite”, it is :dusty”, “cavelike.”

However, his details didn’t support any of these focuses.

My attic (Revision)

 My attic is my hideaway cave. At least once a week, I climb up into this quite private space at the top of the house. Like a cave, the attic is silent and dark. The thick white pads of insulation prevent voices or sounds from coming in. they also keep out the light. Sitting in my attic, I feel like a bear that is hibernating. Nobody and nothing can bother me up there. If I want to do something, I can switch on the single light bulb up  in the wooden rafters and it sends down a thin beam of yellow light. Usually, however, I just sit back and inhale the musty smell of the dust and mold on the walls and floors. The dust is so thick that I can almost taste it. I feel warm, peaceful, and safe. Like a bear, I’m glad I have my own private cave.

Possible focuses:

  1. this room is very feminine. It remains me of when I used to dress up like my mom and other pretty women.
  2. this room is light and bright and makes me feel happy.
  3. the room is like a little girl’s room. It reminds me of when I was an innocent child.

When I have children and home of my own, I hope to have a powder room just like my mother’s. If I don’t, I will keep returning to my mother’s because it remains me of my childhood happiness and innocent. When I close the door inside this white and pink world, I feel like a young girl again. The walls still tower over me, making me feel little. The puffs of pink in the snow-white wallpapers still seem like cotton candy and I remember when I tried to lick one because it looked so sugary sweet. The floor is covered in soft rose carpeting that feels as comforting as a baby’s quilt. Above this plush floor stands the long, straight mirror. Dozens of tiny lights dance brightly around the mirror like circus strobes and they radiate a glowing warmth. Soft music flows from the white Mickey  Mouse  radio on sink. I curl up on the fat pad of the chair and play with the sinny white jars of makeup. These pressures from school and job melt away and I am safe and secure once again.

DEVELOPMENT 

Effective development consists  of details that  “tells”, and “show.”  When you “tell” about a topic, you are summarizing what you know and what you feel about it. When you “show” a topic, you are describing exactly what the object or person looks like, sounds like, feels like, and so forth.

DR DOS (Digital  Research’s Disk Operating System) is going to revolutionize IMB computers and their clones. It is installed differently than other systems. Also, it has many features that make it easier to use and superior to the current standard, Microsoft’s MS-DOS.

The writer’s purpose was to convince readers of the benefits of this new computers operating system. Did her draft convince you? Why or why not?

Here is the writer’s revision

DR DOS (Digital Research’s Disk Operating System) is going to revolutionize IBM computers and their clones. Unlike all other operating systems, DR DOS is installed on a ROM card or chip, so it takes up less memory and it boots up instantaneously. No longer do users have to grind their teeth waiting for the disk to grind up the DOS; now it appears in the blink of an eye. DR DOS also has many superior features, including a full-screen editor for users to write commands directly into text, built-in directories, and password protection. These features make it easier to use and superior to the current standard, Microsoft’s MS-DOS. DR DOS is the fastest, most powerful operating system there is.

How did the writer’s revisions help her accomplish her purpose?

……………………………………………….

…………………………………………………

…………………………………………

The revision is effective because it gives many examples of the benefits of the new system. By spelling out the specific “ superior features” of DR DOS.

UNITY

Draft

(1)   A college degree may not benefit women as much as it benefits men. (2) Recently, the U.S. Department of Education published a report about this. (3) It seems that employers are not rewarding female workers who have college degrees. (4) Male college graduates get better positions and earn more money than do better-qualified female graduates. (5) This report tells the findings of a recent study. (6) Male and female college graduates who took the same kinds of college courses and who worked in the same job for the same number of years make different salaries. (7) The researcher who did this report is a senior research associate in the Department’s Office of Research. (8) He has done many important studies. (9) This study showed that male graduates earn 15 percent to 60 percent more than female graduates for their effort and qualifications. (10) Many female graduates have changed their careers recently. (11) This report shows that women cannot assume that their college degrees will earn them good jobs and salaries.

Note: this paragraph is not unified . sentence 5, 7, 8, and 10 do not relate clearly to the main point stated in sentence 1.

Revision

A college degree may not benefit women as much as it benefits men. According to the U.S. Department of Education, male college graduates get better positions and earn more money than do better-qualified female graduates. Researchers found that male and female college graduates who took the same kinds of college courses and who worked in the same jobs for the same number of years make different salaries. Their study showed that male graduates earn 15 percent to 60 percent more than female graduates for their effort and qualifications. In addition, the women graduates had more unemployment than the men did. This report shows that women cannot assume that their college degrees will earn them good jobs and salaries.

This revision is more effective than the first draft because every sentence develops the paragraph’s main point. It has unity

 (1) Although I look very different from my adoptive parents, I am incredibly similar to them in terms of temperament and values. (2) I am quiet and shy like my mother, and I share her love of learning and books. (3) My mom is a housewife, and she does volunteer work at the local hospital, reading to elderly patients. (4) My mom and I even share fictional tastes: We both like mysteries and spy novels. (5) I hope to become an English teacher one day. (6) I am Mexican and my parents are Anglos. (7) Although my personality is similar to my mother’s, I also share many of my father’s traits. (8) He and I believe that athletic competition helps people become stronger and feel better about themselves. (9) Like my dad, I excel in basketball, football, and tennis and I love watching sports on television. (10) My father was once a U.S. Tennis Association ranked player and he is still a great player. (11) Both of my parents have always shown me how important it is to respect and care for other people. (12) When I was a child, they took turns spending time with me and helping me understand the importance of fair play and of helping others. (13) Today, these values are still with me and I am active in many charitable organizations that assist the poor. (14) I am particularly concerned about homelessness. (15) In conclusion, although my genes and my looks differ from my parents’, I share their concerns, their favorite activities, and their values.

COHERENCE

Well constructed paragraph and essay should have coherence. Coherence is different from unity. If a paragraph is a brick wall of a house all the bricks in the wall are similar in  shape, size, color, and pattern. While the cement or mortar that connects the bricks to one another is what makes the wall coherent.

Coherence can be achieved with transitional words or phrases that signal the relation among  your idea or details.

TRANSITIONAL WORDS AND PHRASES FOR ACHIEVING COHERENCE

    1. To signal the time relation of the next detail: first, second, third, next, then, after, before, during, at lst, immediately, finally.
    2. To signal that the next detail is similar or an additional example or reason: also, in addition, furthermore, moreover, similarly, first, next, last, finally.
    3. to signal that the next detail is an example:  for example, for instance, thus, in other words, in particular.
    4. to signal that the next detail is different:  on the other hand, however, nevertheless, still, but, although , even though,
    5. to signal that  the next detail is a consequence: as a result, consequently, hence, so, therefore, thus

1. to signal that the next detail is a conclusion:  in conclusion, in summary, on the whole, therefore, thus.

 I adore my five-year-old daughter, Serena. She drives me crazy. This morning she dumped her breakfast of hot oatmeal on the cat. She tried to wash it off him by pouring her glass of water on him. I started yelling at her. Serena didn’t stop making a mess. She stared defiantly at me and smashed a chocolate cookie all over the table. I spanked her. I told Serena to go get dressed. I cleaned the kitchen. I went to see how she was doing. I got angry all over again because Serena had tied her sneakers together and was hopping all around knocking things over. I j started to scream. She looked up at me and said, “Please don’t be mad Mommy. I’m only a little girl.” I melted. She is really a little devil, not a ] little girl. She’s my devil and I love her.

Revision

Although I adore my five-old daughter, Serena, she drives me crazy.  For instance, this morning she dumped her breakfast of hot oatmeal on the cat. Then she tried to wash it off him by pouring her glassof water on him. Even though I started yelling at her, Serena didn’t stop making a mess. In fact, she stared defiantly at me and smashed a chocolate cookie all over the table, so I spanked her. After that, I told Serena to go get dressed while I cleaned the kitchen. When I went to see how she was doing, I got angry all over again because Serena had tied her sneakers together and was hopping all around knocking things over. I started to scream, but then she looked up at me and said, “Please don’t be mad Mommy. I’m only a little girl.” I melted. She is really a little devil, not a little girl. Nevertheless, she’s my devil and I love her.

The transitions make the relations between the sentences clear. The details in this revision are logically arranged and they stick together—they cohere.

Notice that you do not need to put a transition at the beginning of every sentence in order to make your paragraphs coherent. You will have to decide which sentences are clear and effective without transitions and which ones need transitions to signal their relations to other ideas in the paragraph.

 

 

Materials for 2nd October

Starting English Conversation

Some people say that starting English conversation is very difficult. That is why, this group of people will try to avoid doing any English conversation. However, some other people have different point of view. It means they are eager to make English conversation. In reality, every business people is required to be able to communicate in English, especially when doing any business with foreign people. The following list consists of several essential notes about how to start English conversation.

1. Realizing that English is a foreign language for us, it is not necessary to be ashamed to do any mistakes while making conversation, especially on grammatical problems. Very often, we may learn from the mistakes.

2. Remember, the most important one on conversation is that the other people can understand what you mean. Therefore, grammatical error  does not mean “death” on conversation.

3. There are three common ways we can apply to start English conversation especially with someone we do not recognize. They are:

A.     Good morning. I’m Justinus from Indonesia. Can I talk with you?

B.     Hello. My name is Jokawi from Indonesia. Are you free for a moment?

C.    Excuse me. I’m Maya from Indonesia. May I disturb you?

4. There are some common phrases which are usually used on conversation. Some of them are :

–  How do you do!

–  How are you?

–  Repeat please!

–  How do you spell your name?

–  I see.

–  You’re welcome

The remaining phrases can be found on your Business English Module Page 5.

5. Sometimes, we would like to know furthermore information about someone’s identity like name, address, occupation etc. To do that, please complete the Mind Mapping of Personal Identity, on your English Module, Page 6.

6. It is natural for someone to create a good conversation. To achieve it that he may follow  two things. First, try to find out as soon as possible what someone likes and dislikes as well. Second, talk all things that he likes so that he will feel warm. Needless to say that foreign people are not interested to talk about certain things such as: age, marital status, and religion. On the other hand, they prefer talking about job, nationality, address and education.

7. For exercises, listening the conversation on your English Module Page, 7 and 8, Track 6, 7, 3, 5 and Track 12.

8. For lecturer, please drill your student to pronounce some geographical names on English Module page. 10.

9. Remember what the quotation says that “Practice Makes Perfect”. It means, the more frequently you do conversation, the more mistakes you can overcome.

Thanks

1st Session, On Business English Subject

PRESENTATION 1 : VOCABULARY BUILDER

A. MAIN TOPICS TO BE COVERED ON BUSINESS ENGLISH SUBJECT

–  How To Start English Conversation

–  Application Letter

–  Job Interview

–  Reading, Translating, and Summarizing English Passages

–  Listening Audio and Watching Video

–   Mid Semester Exam    (Written Exam)

–   Writing Paragraph

–   Explaining Graph

–   Reading, Translating, and Summarizing English Passage

–   Listening Audio and Watching Video.

–   How to make effective presentation

–   Final Semester Exam  (Presentation by students)

B. PAMU’S RULES

 1. At least 75 % attendance for Final Semester Exam,

2. Must take mid and final exam,

3. Not more than 30 minutes late,

4. Well dress and good attitude,

5. Turn hand phone off.

D. GRADING SYSTEM

1.      Kehadiran                     10 %

2.      Tugas                            20 %

3.      UTS                              30 %

4.      UAS                              40 %

Scoring System

1.      80 – 100 = A

2.      68 – 79   = B

3.      56 – 67   = C

4.      45 – 55   = D

5.      0 –  44    = E

 

E. BREAKING THE ICE

Good afternoon everybody. Let me introduce myself. My name is___________________ I’m_____________years old. I live at___________________________________________ I study at Esa Unggul University, Faculty of ………………, majoring………………………………. in the________________ semester. About family background, I have _________brother(s)s and ________ sister(s). My phone number is________________My hobby is __________ In future, I want to be____________________.  That’s all about my personal identity. Thank you for listening