Category Archives: Toefl 1

Listening 2

Listening Comprehension is the first section on toefl. It focus on how far you can comprehend the native on audio. Most test takers say that this section is the most difficult one, mainly because there is no repetition. Listening Comprehension consists of three parts. They are Part A, Part B and Part C.

Listening Part B

1. It is about long conversation between two people. At the end of every conversation there will be 4 or 5 questions.

2. Generally, there are 2 long conversations.

2. If the first person is man the second one is female and vise versa.

3. There is no tape script on the question sheet.

4. There is no repetition.

STRATEGIES FORTHE LISTENING PART B QUESTIONS

•I f you have time, preview the answers to the Listening Part B questions. While you are looking at the answers, you should try to do the following:
•Anticipate the topics of the conversations you will hear. -Anticipate the questions for each of the groups of answers.
• Listen carefully to the first line of the conversation. The first line of the conversation often contains the main idea, subject, or topic of the conversation, and you will often be asked to answer such questions.
• As you listen to the conversation, draw conclusions about the situation of the conversation: who is talking, where the conversation takes place, or when it takes place. You will often be asked to make such inferences about the conversation.
• As you listen to the conversation, follow along with the answers in your test book and try to determine the correct answers. Detail questions are generally answered in order in the conversation, and the answers often sound the same as what is said in the recording program.
• You should guess even if you are not sure. Never leave any answers blank.

Use any remaining time to look ahead

• As you listen to the conversation, follow along with the answers in your test book and try to determine the correct answers. Detail questions are generally answered in order in the conversation, and the answers often sound the same as what is said in the recording program.
• You should guess even if you are not sure. Never leave any answers blank.
• Use any remaining time to look ahead at the answers to the questions that follow.

Reading Comprehension Section

Reading Comprehension is the third section of Toefl. There are 50 questions with available time is around 55 minutes. Some test takers say that the main handicaps are limited time and limited vocabulary. Here below, some essential notes are available in order to make good preparation.     

1.      Reading Comprehension consists of fifty questions (some tests may be longer).

2.      Generally, you only have fifty five minutes to complete this section.

3.      Topics of reading passage are varied, such as: American History, literature, art, architecture, geology, geography, economics, astronomy, music, sport, biology, law, physics, Chemistry, Biography, Invention, health etc.

4.      It is rarely found two similar topics at the same exam.

5.      Many participants confess that they are unable to finish this section because of limited  time.

6.       Sometimes, it is more efficient to learn the questions first then read the passage.

7.      Characteristics of questions:

–          Topic, main idea, title

–          Closest in meaning

–          Synonym

–          Referring to

–          Line

–          Except

–          Is not true

8.      Additional notes:

–          Pay attention to the first line of every paragraph.

–          Read carefully about names of people or places in the passage.

–          Be careful about number mentioned.

 

Reading Comprehension  (1)

            The three phases of human memory are the sensory memory, the short-term memory and the long-term memory. This division of memory into phases is based on the length of time of the memory. Sensory memory is instantaneous memory. It is an image or memory that enters your mind only for a short period of time; it comes and goes in under a second. The memory will not last longer than that unless the information enters the short-term memory.

Information can be held in the short-term memory for about twenty seconds or as long as you are actively using it. If you repeat a fact to yourself, that fact will stay in your short-term memory as long as you keep repeating it. Once you stop repeating it, either it is forgotten or it moves to long-term memory.

Long-term memory is a huge memory tank that can hold ideas and images for years and years. Information can be added to your long-term memory when you actively try to put it there through memorization or when an idea or image enters your mind on its own.

1.    The best title of this passage would be;

a.     the difference between sensory and short-term memory.

b.     how long it takes to memorize.

c.      the stage of human memory.

d.     human phases.

2.   The three phases of memory discussed in the passage are differentiated according to,      

a.     the location in the brain.

b.     the period of time it takes to remember something.

c.      how the senses are involved in the memory.

d.     how long the memory lasts.

3.  The expression ‘is based on’ in the line 3 could be replaced by,

a.     is on the top of.

b.     is at the foot of.

c.      depends on.

d.     is below.

 

4.   According to the passage, which type of memory is the shortest?

a.     sensory memory.

b.     active memory.

c.      short-term memory.

d.     long-term memory.

5.    According to the passage, when will the information stay in your short-term memory?

a.     for as long as twenty minutes.

b.     as long as it is being used.

c.      after you have repeated it many times.

d.     when  it has moved into long-term memory.

6.    The word ‘keep’ in line 10 could be replaced by,

a.     Hold.

b.     Continue.

c.      Retain.

d.     Save.

Reading Comprehension (2)

Coca-Cola was invented in 1886, by Atlanta pharmacist John S. Pemberton. The name for the product was actually proposed by Pemberton’s assistant, Frank Robinson. The name was taken from the two unusual ingredients in the drink, the South American coca leaf and the African cola nut.

The recipe for today’s Coca-Cola is very well guarded. Many of the ingredients are known. In addition to coca leaves and cola nut, they include lemon, orange, lime, cinnamon, vanilla and sugar. The proportion of the ingredients and the identity of Coke’s secret ingredients are known only by a few senior corporate officers of Coca-Cola Company.

1.      According to the passage, who created Coca-Cola?

(A)   The Coca-Cola company

(B)    John S. Pemberton

(C)    Pemberton’s assistant

(D)   Frank Robinson

2.      The word “unusual” in paragraph one is closest in meaning to

(A)   uncommon

(B)    important

(C)    unused

(D)   tasty

3.      The passage states that the recipe for Coca-Cola is

(A)   well-known

(B)    known only by a limited number of people

(C)    unknown

(D)   published information

4.      Which of the following is NOT true about Coca-Cola?

(A)   the name “coca” comes from coca leaf

(B)    the name “cola” comes from cola nut

(C)    Frank Robinson suggested the name

(D)   The inventor came up with the name

5.      The word “senior” in the second paragraph could be replaced by

(A)   trustworthy

(B)    high level

(C)    more mature

(D)   the owner

Structure And Written Expression

STRUCTURE AND WRITTEN EXPRESSION

This is the second section of the toefl test. It consists of Part A and Part B. Every part has its own direction which test takers must be familiar with. Most test taker say that this is the easiest section on toefl. That is why participants may reach high score in general.

  1. Structure and Written Expression (multiple choice) : To demonstrate their ability to recognize grammatically correct English, examinees must choose the correct way to complete the sentences and must find errors in sentences.
  2. This section consists of forty questions (some tests may be longer)STRUCTURE consists of fifteen questions. You must choose the correct choice to fill the blank in every question. Try to eliminate incorrect answer that do not complete the sentence. Try to eliminate incorrect answers that do not complete the sentence

    WRITTEN EXPRESSION consists of 25 questions. Every question has four underlined words or phrases and you must choose an incorrect underlined alternative..

  3. Remember, Vocabulary is the main capital to complete this section, because very often someone can choose a correct choice by looking at the incorrect translation and to be able to translate vocabulary is the first priority to possess by test takers. Take a look at the following vocabulary:

     succeed

    publish

    dedicate

    Calculate

    Advertise

    Offer

    Reject

    Listen

    Correct

    Complete

    Live

    Inform

    Stay

    Recognize

    Appear

    Concentrate

    Change

    Work

    Employ

    Look at

    Look for

    Miss

    Open

    Turn

    Motivate

    Provide

    Decide

    Insert

    Avoid

    Produce

    Reduce

    Increase

    Present

    Relate

    Establish

    Penetrate

    Report

    Record

    Need

    Use

    Distribute

    Receive

    Inaugurate

    Appoint

    Employ

    Claim

    Save

    Blame

    Support

    Sponsor

    Represent

    Classify

    Satisfy

    Realize

    succeeded

    published

    dedicated

    Calculated

    Advertised

    Offered

    Rejected

    Listened

    Corrected

    Completed

    Lived

    Informed

    Stayed

    Recognized

    Appeared

    Concentrated

    Changed

    Worked

    Employed

    Looked at

    Looked for

    Missed

    Opened

    Turned

    Motivated

    Provided

    Decided

    Inserted

    Avoided

    Produced

    Reduced

    Increased

    Presented

    Related

    Established

    Penetrated

    Reported

    Recorded

    Needed

    Used

    Distributed

    Received

    Inaugurated

    Appointed

    Employed

    Claimed

    Saved

    Blamed

    Supported

    Sponsored

    Represented

    Classified

    Satisfied

    Realized

    succeeded

    published

    dedicated

    Calculated

    Advertised

    Offered

    Rejected

    Listened

    Corrected

    Completed

    Lived

    Informed

    Stayed

    Recognized

    Appeared

    Concentrated

    Changed

    Worked

    Employed

    Looked at

    Looked for

    Missed

    Opened

    Turned

    Motivated

    Provided

    Decided

    Inserted

    Avoided

    Produced

    Reduced

    Increased

    Presented

    Related

    Established

    Penetrated

    Reported

    Recorded

    Needed

    Used

    Distributed

    Received

    Inaugurated

    Appointed

    Employed

    Claimed

    Saved

    Blamed

    Supported

    Sponsored

    Represented

    Classified

    Satisfied

    Realized

    See

    Cut

    Grow

    Have

    Choose

    Hold

    Give

    Take

    Go

    Get

    Sing

    Think

    Read

    Write

    Leave

    Break

    Make

    Foresee

    Beat

    Bite

    Break

    Draw

    Fall

    Fly

    Grow

    Hide

    Shake

    Show

    Shrink

    Tear

    Throw

    Wear

    Weave

    Withdraw

    Saw

    Cut

    Grew

    Had

    Chose

    Held

    Gave

    Took

    Went

    Got

    Sang

    Thought

    Read

    Wrote

    Left

    Broke

    Made

    Foresaw

    Beat

    Bit

    Broke

    Drew

    Fell

    Flew

    Grew

    Hid

    Shook

    Showed

    Shrank

    Tore

    Threw

    Wore

    Wove

    Withdrew

    Seen

      Cut

    grown

    Had

    Chosen

    Held

    Given

    Taken

    Gone

    Got

    Sung

    Thought

    Read

    Written

    Left

    Broken

    Made

    Foreseen

    Beaten

    Bitten

    Broken

    Drawn

    Fallen

    Flown

    Grown

    Hidden

    Shaken

    Shown

    Shrunk

    Torn

    Thrown

    Worn

    Woven

    withdrawn

What is A Toefl?

INTRODUCTION

All university students at Esa Unggul University have to pass Toefl 1, Toefl 2 and Business English Subjects. At first, new students take toefl 1 in semester one. Sometimes, some students take this subject in semester two or three. Having passed toefl 1, students may take toefl two. It means toefl one is a pre-requisite subject. In other words, studenta are not allowed to take toefl one and toefl two at the same time. It is a bit different with toefl two. Toefl two and Business English subjects can be taken in the same semester.

A. WHAT IS A TOEFL ?

Toefl is a new thing to some students. They never learn about it at all. TOEFL stands for Test of English as a Foreign Language. TOEFL is a test to measure the level of English proficiency of non-native speakers of English. It is required primarily by English-language colleges and universities. Additionally, institutions such as government agencies or scholarship programs may require the test.

The test currently has the following sections:

  1. Listening Comprehension (multiple choice): To demonstrate heir ability to understand spoken English, examinees must listen to a tape and respond to various types of questions.
  2. Structure and Written Expression (multiple choice) : To demonstrate their ability to recognize grammatically correct English, examinees must choose the correct way to complete the sentences and must find errors in sentences.
  3. Reading Comprehension (multiple choice): To demonstrate their ability to understand written English, examinees must answer questions about the meanings of words and ideas in reading passages.

The following chart outlines the probable format of a TOEFL test. (It should be noted that on certain occasions a longer version of the TOEFL test is given)

 

Sections of TOEFL Number of Question Time
Listening Comprehension 50 questions 35 minutes
Structure and Written Expression 40 questions 25 minutes
Reading Comprehension 50 questions 25 minutes
 Total Questions  140  Around 2 hours

B. Scoring and Grading System

 1.      Kelulusan dengan Toefl Score  ≥ 450

2.      Toefl Score tertinggi antara UTS dan UAS

3.      Kehadiran dan Tugas tidak termasuk komponen Nilai Akhir

C. CONVERTED TOEFL SCORES

               425 atau kurang……E

               426 – 449 ……………..D

               450 – 470 ……………..C

               471 – 485 ……………..B           

               486 atau lebih……….A

D. PAMU’S RULES

1.75 % attendance for final exam,

2. Must take mid and final exam,

3. Not more than 30 minutes late,

4. Good performance and attitude,

5. Turn off your hand phone during lecturing

 

Reading Comprehension Toefl 1

READING COMPREHENSION                                                                             

Reading Comprehension is the third section of Toefl. Here below, some essential notes are available in order to make good preparation.     

1.      Reading Comprehension consists of fifty questions (some tests may be longer).

2.      Generally, you only have fifty five minutes to complete this section.

3.      Topics of reading passage are varied, such as: American History, literature, art, architecture, geology, geography, economics, astronomy, music, sport, biology, law, physics, Chemistry, Biography, Invention, health etc.

4.      It is rarely found two similar topics at the same exam.

5.      Many participants confess that they are unable to finish this section because of limited  time.

6.       Sometimes, it is more efficient to learn the questions first then read the passage.

7.      Characteristics of questions:

–          Topic, main idea, title

–          Closest in meaning

–          Synonym

–          Referring to

–          Line

–          Except

–          Is not true

8.      Additional notes:

–          Pay attention to the first line of every paragraph.

–          Read carefully about names of people or places in the passage.

–          Be careful about number mentioned.

 

Reading Comprehension  (1)

            The three phases of human memory are the sensory memory, the short-term memory and the long-term memory. This division of memory into phases is based on the length of time of the memory. Sensory memory is instantaneous memory. It is an image or memory that enters your mind only for a short period of time; it comes and goes in under a second. The memory will not last longer than that unless the information enters the short-term memory.

Information can be held in the short-term memory for about twenty seconds or as long as you are actively using it. If you repeat a fact to yourself, that fact will stay in your short-term memory as long as you keep repeating it. Once you stop repeating it, either it is forgotten or it moves to long-term memory.

Long-term memory is a huge memory tank that can hold ideas and images for years and years. Information can be added to your long-term memory when you actively try to put it there through memorization or when an idea or image enters your mind on its own.

1.    The best title of this passage would be;

a.     the difference between sensory and short-term memory.

b.     how long it takes to memorize.

c.      the stage of human memory.

d.     human phases.

2.   The three phases of memory discussed in the passage are differentiated according to,      

a.     the location in the brain.

b.     the period of time it takes to remember something.

c.      how the senses are involved in the memory.

d.     how long the memory lasts.

3.  The expression ‘is based on’ in the line 3 could be replaced by,

a.     is on the top of.

b.     is at the foot of.

c.      depends on.

d.     is below.

 

4.   According to the passage, which type of memory is the shortest?

a.     sensory memory.

b.     active memory.

c.      short-term memory.

d.     long-term memory.

5.    According to the passage, when will the information stay in your short-term memory?

a.     for as long as twenty minutes.

b.     as long as it is being used.

c.      after you have repeated it many times.

d.     when  it has moved into long-term memory.

6.    The word ‘keep’ in line 10 could be replaced by,

a.     Hold.

b.     Continue.

c.      Retain.

d.     Save.

Reading Comprehension (2)

Coca-Cola was invented in 1886, by Atlanta pharmacist John S. Pemberton. The name for the product was actually proposed by Pemberton’s assistant, Frank Robinson. The name was taken from the two unusual ingredients in the drink, the South American coca leaf and the African cola nut.

The recipe for today’s Coca-Cola is very well guarded. Many of the ingredients are known. In addition to coca leaves and cola nut, they include lemon, orange, lime, cinnamon, vanilla and sugar. The proportion of the ingredients and the identity of Coke’s secret ingredients are known only by a few senior corporate officers of Coca-Cola Company.

1.      According to the passage, who created Coca-Cola?

(A)   The Coca-Cola company

(B)    John S. Pemberton

(C)    Pemberton’s assistant

(D)   Frank Robinson

2.      The word “unusual” in paragraph one is closest in meaning to

(A)   uncommon

(B)    important

(C)    unused

(D)   tasty

3.      The passage states that the recipe for Coca-Cola is

(A)   well-known

(B)    known only by a limited number of people

(C)    unknown

(D)   published information

4.      Which of the following is NOT true about Coca-Cola?

(A)   the name “coca” comes from coca leaf

(B)    the name “cola” comes from cola nut

(C)    Frank Robinson suggested the name

(D)   The inventor came up with the name

5.      The word “senior” in the second paragraph could be replaced by

(A)   trustworthy

(B)    high level

(C)    more mature

(D)   the owner

Clause, Preference

I. Clauses  

Clause is a group of words that has subject and predicate but cannot stand alone as a sentence. It always has connectors such as: when, while, whenever, that, which, who, whom, whose, where, what, etc. Take a look at the following underline words.

1. I don’t know where she lives.

2. I wonder whose car parked beside Indonusa cafeteria.

3. The girl who is wearing red skirt and pink blouse in front of you is smart.

4. The BCA ATM which is located in Taman Anggrek Mal works well.

5. The boy whom you met last week did not ask any questions.

6. I forgot what her name is.

7. He spends his vacation in Bandung where he was born 27 years ago.

Exercise

1. Some boys and children who study seriously in that school don’t know what —–

a.parents names  b.parents names are  c.their parents name is d.their parents’ name are

2. About twenty participants —————- in the two-day seminar were often late.

a. whom you interviewing  b. whom you interviewed  c. who you interviewed

d. who you interview

3. Almost every body in this city has vehicles, but I wonder ———– does not use oil.

a. who  b. whom  c. whose  d. where

4. Is there any body knows where does he work or where he studies?

A                         B                        C                                  D

5. Some people which wanted to watch the competition had to queue for hours.

A                        B                                  C                        D

6. The new professor who you called last night has been teaching in that class since 1970.

A              B                     C                D   

II.  Reduced Adjective Clause

1. The man who carried heavy suitcases was strong.

The man carrying heavy suitcases was strong.

2. The letter which is being written by him is confidential.

The letter written by him is confidential.

3. The man that I just met yesterday shouted angrily. (does not reduce).

4. The e-mail you sent me last night was not important. (does not reduce).

Exercise

1. The secretary that we ——— was tired.

a. talked to  b. talking to  c. who to talk  d. whom talked to

2. The computer they  ————  us last week is out of date.

a. delivering to b. delivered to c. which delivered  d. who delivered

3. The machine ———– the raw rubber is excellent.

a. is processing  b. is processed  c. which processing  d. processing

4. The dictionary ————— still needs more revision.

a. which has been revised  b. which revised  c. has revised  d. revising

5. The servant ——— this morning is not honest.

a. that I called  b. that calling  c. whom called  d. who I call

6. The people who standing in line beside us felt tired and wanted to leave this place.

A                                   B                      C            D

7. The package the stranger delivered us last night did not belong to us.

A                B                               C                    D

8. The avocado juice which was being made in the new kitchen is for him.

A                B                                            C         D

III. Preferences                                                                                             

1. I prefer staying home to joining “The Fear Factor.”

2. I prefer lemonade to whisky.

3. I would prefer to study hard (rather) than (to) take the matriculation again.

Exercise

1. Do you ————- fruit punch to fresh oranges?

a. would prefer  b. preferring  c. prefers   d. prefer

2. A lot of people in that standing party ——— carbonated drinks than order juices.

a. prefer order  b. would prefer order  c. would prefer to order  d. prefer ordering

3. We —————— football match to watching Telenovela this evening.

a. prefer watching   b. prefer to watch  c. would prefer watch  d. would prefer to watch.

4. Mr. Jojon is now preferring the apartment located in the suburb to the big house near

A                                        B                   C

campus opposite the bank.

D

5. Of course we would prefer to prepare my assignment well than to retyped it.

A                    B                                        C            D

6. Jacky Chan prefer visiting historical places in Jogja to visiting Monas.

A                        B                    C                  D

IV. Subjunctive

1.  I suggested that she follow the instruction carefully.

2.  The professor demands that UIEU students be qualified.

2.  It is essential that the lecturer review all the chapters in this semester.

 

Common verbs/expressions followed by subjunctive:

advise, ask, demand, insist, propose, recommend, request, suggest, essential, imperative, important, critical, necessary, vital.

Exercise

1. The manager and the director as well as the crews of Indosiar demand that the press —

a. be independence  b. to be independent  c. be independent  d. is independent

2. It is vital that no body in Dharmais hospital ———– pets while visiting the patients.

a. will bring  b. can bring  c. bring  d. is bringing

3. The professor who is sitting in the first row insisted —————– serious

a. that students be b. students are  c. students were   d. that students were

4. Linda demanded that all the toys and comic books on the floor are put on the table.

A                                            B                C                    D

5. No one in this classroom knows that it is imperative that a new student introduces

A                B                                                       C

Himself in front of the class for his first attendance.

D

6. We asked that the new students and their parents sitting in the hall agreed with us.

A               B                                                     C                        D

V. Causative verbs: make, have, get.

1. The lecturer made the students rewrite all the incorrect sentences.

2. The lecturer had the students rewrite all the incorrect sentences.

3. The lecturer got the students to rewrite all the incorrect sentences.

4. I will have the OHP repaired before the meeting starts.

5. I am going to get the PC prepared before the class begins.

Exercise

1. Last night Mr. Sutiyoso and some of his staff got the squatters ———–

a. move  b. moved  c. would move  d. to move

2. Don’t be silly. In this campus you mustn’t shout. It can make others ……. annoyed

a. feel  b. feeling  c. will feel  d. are feeling

3. I am not skillful enough to design this new product I will ——- by the expert.

a. have it done  b. have it did  c. had it done  d. has it done

4. The old man will get the floor mopped if it is dirty or wet.

A     B                      C                D

5. Will she have the attendant done the tasks if he is late again?

A                                         B              C               D

6. They will never make you cried if you are obedient.

A               B                C              D

 

 

Structure 4

STRUCTURE

SKILL 25: USE PARALLEL STRUCTURE WITH PAIRED CONJUNCTIONS

The paired conjunctions both… and, either… or, neither… nor and not only… but also require parallel structures.

  • I know both where you went and what you did.
  • Either Mark or Sue has the book.
  • The tickets are neither in my pocket nor in my purse.
  • He is not only an excellent student but also an outstanding athlete.

The following is not parallel and must be corrected:

  • He wants either to go by train or by plane*.

It is not correct because to go by train is not parallel to by plane.

It can he corrected in several ways:

  • He wants either to go by train or to go by plane.
  • He wants to go either by train or by plane.
  • He wants to go by either train or plane.

When you are using these paired conjunctions, be sure that the correct parts are used together. The following are incorrect:

  • I want both this book or* that one.
  • Either Sam nor* Sue is taking the course.

These sentences are incorrect because the wrong parts of the paired conjunctions are used together.

In the first example, and should be used with both. In the second example, or should be used with either.

The following chart outlines the use of parallel structure with paired conjunctions:

PARALLEL STRUCTURE WITH PAIRED CONJUNCTION

both

either

neither

not only

 

(same structure)

and

or

nor

but also

 

(same structure)

 

 

EXERCISE 25: Each of the following sentences contains words or groups of words that should be parallel. Circle the word or words that indicate that the sentence should have parallel parts. Underline the parts that should be parallel. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I) .

    1. According to the syllabus, you can either write a paper or you can take an exam.
    2. It would be both noticed and appreciated if you could finish the work before you Ieave.
    3. She would like neither to see a movie or to go bowling.
    4. Either the manager or her assistant can help you with your refund.
    5. She wants not only to take a trip to Europe but she also would like to travel to Asia.
    6. He could correct neither what you said nor you wrote.
    7. Both the tailor or the laundress could fix the damage to the dress.
    8. He not only called the police department but also called the fire department.
    9. You can graduate either at the end of the fall semester or you can graduate at the end of the spring semester.
    10. The movie was neither amusing nor was it interesting.

 

PROBLEMS WITH PASSIVE VERBS

Sentences in which the error is an incorrect passive are common in written expression questions on the TOEFL test. You therefore need to be able to recognize the correct form of the passive and to he able to determine when a passive verb rather than an active verb is needed in a sentence.

The difference between an active and a. passive verb is that the subject in an active sentence does the action of the verb, and the subject in a passive sentence receives the action of the verb. To convert a sentence from active to passive, two changes must be made.

(1) The subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence, while the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence.

(2) The verb in the passive sentence is formed by putting the helping verb be in the same form as the verb in the active sentence and then adding the past participle of this verb.

  • Margaret wrote the letter.

SUBJECT                   OBJECT

  • The letter was written by Margaret.

The first example is an active sentence. To convert this active sentence to a passive sentence, you must first make the subject of the active sentence, Margaret, the object of the passive sentence with by. The object of the active sentence, letter, becomes the subject of the passive sentence. Next, the passive verb can be formed. Because wrote is in the past tense in the active sentence, the past tense of be (was) is used in the passive sentence. Then the verb wrote in the active sentence is changed to the past participle written in the passive sentence.

It should be noted that in a passive sentence, by + object does not need to be included to have a complete sentence. The following are both examples of correct sentences.

  • The letter was written yesterday by Margaret.
  • The letter was written yesterday.

Notice that these passive sentences are correct if by Margaret is included (as in the first example) or if by Margaret is omitted (as in the second example).

SKILL 37: USE THE CORRECT FORM OF THE PASSIVE

One way that the passive can be tested on the TOEFL test is simply with an incorrect form of the passive. The following are examples of passive errors that might appear on the TOEFL test:

  • The portrait was painting* by a famous artist.
  • The project will finished* by Tim.

In the first example, the passive is formed incorrectly because the past participle painted should be used rather than the present participle painting. In the second example, the verb be has not been included, and some form of be is necessary for a passive verb. The verb in the second sentence should be will be finished.

EXERCISE 37: Each of the following sentences has a passive meaning. Underline twice the verbs that should be passive. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

1. The boy had never be stung by a bee.

2. The suits were hung in the closet when they were returned from the cleaners.

3. Money is lending by the credit union to those who want to buy homes.

4. The record had been chose by dancers near the jukebox.

5. The topic for your research paper should have been approved by your advisor.

6. That song has been playing over and over again by Steve.

7. Their utility bills have been increased again and again.

8. The patients who are too sick to sit tip are being assisted by the orderlies.

9. The offices were thoroughly clean last evening by the night crew.

10. The car that was struck in the intersection yesterday is being repaired today.

Skill 1: Verb that Require an Infinitive in the Complement

Remember that the following verbs require an infinitive for a verb in the complement.

 

agree

appear

arrange

ask

claim

consent

decide

demand

deserve

expect

fail

forget

hesitate

hope

intend

learn

manage

mean

need

offer

plan

prepare

pretend

promise

Refuse

Seem

Tend

Threaten

Wait

want

 

S V C (Infinitive) M
We had planned to leave day before yesterday

 

Avoid using an –ing form after the verbs listed. Avoid using a verb word after want.

Practice 1:  Rewrite the following sentences into the correct ones.

 

1. He wanted speak with Mr. Brown.

 

2. We demand knowing our status.

 

3. I intend inform you that we cannot approve your application.

 

4. They didn’t plan buying a car.

 

5. The weather tends improving in May.

 

EXERCISES

Part A: Choose the correct answer

One of the least effective ways of storing information is learning ______ it.

(a)  how repeat

(b)  repeating

(c)  to repeat

(d)  repeat

 

Part B : Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

Representative democracy seemed evolve simultaneously during the

(A)     (B)               (C)

 

eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in Britain, Europe, and the United States.

(D)

 

Skill 2: Verbs that Require an –ing Form in the Complement

Remember that the following verbs require an –ing form for a verb in the complement :

admit

appreciate

avoid

complete

consider

delay

deny

discuss

enjoy

finish

keep

mention

miss

postpone

practice

quit

recall

recommend

regret

risk

stop

suggest

tolerate

understand

 

S

V

C (-ing)

M

He

enjoys

traveling

By plane

 

Avoid using an infinitive after the verbs listed

Forbid may be used with either infinitive or an –ing complement, but forbid from is not idiomatic.

Practice 2 :  Rewrite the following sentences into the correct ones.

 

1. She is considering not to go

 

2. We enjoyed talk with your friend

 

3. Hank completed the writing his thesis this summer

 

4. I miss to watch the news when I am traveling

 

5. She mentions stop at El Paso in her letter

 

EXERCISES

Part A : Choose the correct answer

Straus finished _________ two of his published compositions before his tenth birthday.

(A)  written

(B)  write

(C)  to write

(D)  writing

 

Part B : Choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it.

Many people have stopped to smoking because they are afraid that it

(A)                                                      (B)            (C)

 

may be harmful to their health.

(D)

 

Skill 3: Verb Phrases that Require an –ing Form in the Complement

Remember that the following verb phrases require an –ing form for a verb in the complement :

approve of

be better off

can’t help

count on

do not mind

forget about

get through

insist on

keep on

look forward to

object to

think about

think of

 

S

V Ph

C (-ing)

M

She

forgot about

canceling

her appointment

 

Avoid using an infinitive after the verb phrases listed. Avoid using a verb after look forward to and object to.

Remember that the verb phrase BE likely does no require an –ing form but requires an infinitive in the complement.

Exercise

52. As a general rule, the standard of living…..by the average output of                   75

each person in society

(A)   is fixed

(B)   fixed

(C)   has fixed

(D)   fixed

53. Jupiter…..perhaps the most important planet of solar system

(A) to be

(B) was

(C) is

(D) like

54. The manager……his new staff about computer system a week later

(A) trains

(B) will train

(C) trained

(D) is training

55.  Five months ago the salary of chief accountant was five million rupiahs, but

this month…..

(A)  was same

(B)   was seven million rupiahs

(C)   is six million rupiahs

(D)  will be ten million rupiahs

56.  ……….are two kinds of financial statement

(A) balance sheet or income statement

(B) capital statement or balance sheet

(C) income statement and capital statement

(D) income statement, balance sheet, and capital statement

57.  Canada does not require that U.S citizens obtain passports to enter the country

and …..

(A) Mexico does either

(B) Mexico doesn’t either

(C) Neither Mexico does

(D) Either Mexico does

58.  Scientists are now beginning to conduct experiments on……trigger different

sorts of health risk.

(A) noise pollution can

(B) that noise pollution

(C) how noise pollution

(D) how noise pollution can

59 . The final delivery of the day is the importantest

A                           B      C             D

60.  There are approximately two hundred employee in this private insurance

A                 B                                       C                       D

61.  Scientists at the medical centre is trying to determine if there is a relationship

A                 B                    C

between saccharine and cancer

D

62.  The Central Banking System of the U.S consists of twelve banks district           76 

A                            B                      C                           D

63.  After last week’s meeting, the advertising department quickly realized that

A                                   B                                     C

the product will need a new slogan

D

64.  The United States receives a large amount of revenue from taxation of

A                                        B                    C

a tobacco products

D

65.   Bankruptcy may be either voluntary nor involuntary

A             B                       C         D

66.  Her money gave back as soon as she threatened to take the matter to court

A            B                      C                                  D

several months ago.

67. The Colorado River reaches their maximum height during April and May

A       B                                   C                 D

 

Reading 3

Question forms

Questions on Reading Comprehension

 

1.     What is the best title for the passage?

2.     The best title of this passage would be:

3.     The suitable title for the passage is:

4.     Which of the following would be the best title for this passage?

5.     The title below that best expresses the ideas in this passage is:

6.     The main idea of this passage is that:

7.     What is the author’s main purpose?

8.     What is the author’s main point?

9.     The subject of this passage is:

10.                        What is the main topic of the passage?

11.                        With which of the following topic is the passage primarily concerned?

12.                        With what topic is this passage primarily concerned?

13.                        Which of the following is the main topic of the passage?

14.                        What does the passage mainly discuss?

15.                        The word “posture” in line 5 is closest in  meaning with:

16.                        The expression “dominance over” in line 6 is closest in meaning to:

17.                        The word “keep” in line 10 could be replaced by:

18.                        The word “those” in paragraph 2 could be replaced by:

19.                        The word “prone” in line 8 is nearest in meaning to:

20.                        The word “they” in line 16 refers to:

21.                        The word “it” in line 10 refers to:

22.                        The pronoun “he” in line 11 refers to:

23.                        Which of the following is NOT true about……..?

24.                        Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage about…..?

25.                        Which of the following is not stated…..?

26.                        According to the passage, which of the following is NOT true about……?

27.                        All of the following are true EXCEPT:

28.                        The author mentions all of the following as characteristics of …… EXCEPT

29.                        Where in the passage, does the author mention about…….?

30.                        It is implied in the passage that……:

31.                        The passage states that….:

32.                        It can be infered from the passage that……

33.                        It can be stated from the passage that:

34.                        The passage indicates that….:

QUESTIONS ABOUT TOPIC, TITLE, and MAIN IDEA

  • This type of question absolutely appear on Toefl test.
  • The answer of such question is an information that is mostly discussed by the author and should be found in all paragraphs.
  • Topic, title or main idea is the most important information of a passage.

Example

The three phases of human memory are the sensory memory, the short-term memory and the long-term memory. This division of memory in to phases is based on the length of time of the memory. Sensory memory is instantaneous memory. It is an image or memory that enters your mind only for a short period of time; it comes and goes in under a second. The memory will not last longer than that unless the information enters the short-term memory.

Information can be held in the short-term memory for about twenty seconds or as long as you are actively using it. If you repeat a fact to yourself, that fact will stay in your short-term memory as long as you keep repeating it. Once you stop repeating it, either it is forgotten or it moves to long-term memory.

Long-term memory is a huge memory tank that can hold ideas and images for years and years. Information can be added to your long-term memory when you actively try to put it there through memorization or when an idea or image enters your mind on its own.

1.      The best title of this passage would be;

(A)  the difference between sensory and short-term memory.

(B)  the stage of human memory.

(C)  how long it takes to memorize.

(D)  human phases.

The corerect answer is (B). (A) is incorrect, because the author not only discusses sensory and short-term memory, but also long-term. (C) is incorrect, because does not want to describe the length of time to memorize. (D) is incorrect, because this does not state its real meaning.

 

Your turn,

 

It is not strictly true that one half of the world population is rich and the other half is poor. It is one third that is very rich and two-thirds that are very poor. People in the rich third do not realize the enormous difference between them and the other two-thirds. A very simple example, a dog or a cat in North America eats better than a child in poor country. A fisherman in South America may be catching fish which is processed into pet food and yet his children are not getting enough protein for their bodies to develop properly. Although a lot of world’s natural resources like oil come from these poor countries, we in the rich countries are probably using sixty times as much of these resources. In some cases, the prices of exported commodities in poor countries have gone down. In others, they have remained steady. However, the prices of export product in rich countries have continued to rise. So, they are getting richer and richer and the poorer countries are getting poorer.

The possible titles are :

  •   The world population.
  •    Poor and rich people in the world.

 

       Although the Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith appeared in 1776, it includes many of the ideas that economists still consider the foundation of private enterprise. The ideas put forth by Smith compose the basis of the philosophies of the school of thought called classical economics.

       According to Smith’s ideas, free competition and free trade are vital in fostering the growth of an economy. The role of government in the economy is to ensure the ability of companies to compete freely.

       Smith, who was himself a Scot, lived during the period of the revolutions in America and in France. During this epoch, the predominant political thought was a strong belief in freedom and independence in government. Smith’s economic ideas of free trade and competition are right in line with these political ideas.

1.                 A “school” in line 3 is

(A)    a common belief

(B)     a college

(C)    a university

(D)    an educational institution

2.                 Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word “free” in line 5?

(A)    Cheap

(B)     No cost

(C)    Uncontrolled

(D)    Democratic

3.                 The word “line” in line 11 could best be replaced by

(A)    straightness

(B)     directness

(C)    file

(D)    agreement

 

 

 

 

 

 

Listening 3

Listening Part C

1. It is very helpful to your overall comprehension if you know what topics to expect in the long conversations. You should therefore try to anticipate the topics you will be hearing. For example, are the conversations about some aspect of school life, or some type of social issue, or a trip someone is planning? A helpful strategy is therefore to look briefly at the answers in the test book, before you actually hear the conversations on the recording, and try to determine the topics of the conversations that you will hear.

2. IDENTIFYING QUESTIONS

1.Who is talking?
2.When does the talk probably take place?
3.Where does the talk probably take place?
4.What course is the talk concerned with?
5.What is the source of information for the talk?
3.Exercise One

  1. (A) during a biology laboratory session          9. (A) they are not so violent

(B) in a biology study group                                (B) they are located along the ring

(C) on the first day of the class                                   of fire

(D) just before the final exam                              (C) they contain a lot of gas

  1. (A) once a week                                                   (D) they contain thick lava

(B) two times a week                                     10. (A) a volcano on the ring of fire

(C) three times a week                                         (B) an island in the Hawaii

(D) for fifteen hours                                             (C) a long, low volcanic mountain

  1. (A) to do the first laboratory assignment             (D) an explosive volcano

(B) to take the first exam                               11. (A) an artist

(C) to study the laboratory manual                      (B) a tour guide

(D) to read one chapter of the text                       (C) an Indian

  1. (A) room assignments                                          (D) Orvile Wright

(B) exam topics                                              12. (A) several

(C) reading assignments                                       (B) sixty thousand

(D) the first lecture                                               (C) sixteen million

  1. (A) exams and lab work                                       (D) millions and millions

(B) reading and writing assignments              13. (A) The National Air and Space Museum

(C) class participation and grades on                    (B) the Museum of Natural history

examinations                                                  (C) The American History Museum

(D) lecture and laboratory attendance                   (D) The Smithsonian Arts and

  1. (A) what caused the ring of fire                                    Industries Building

(B) the volcanoes of the ring of fire                14. (A) The American History Museum

(C) Hawaiian volcanoes                                         (B) The Smithsonian Arts and

(D) different types of volcanoes                                   Industries Building

  1. (A) the ring of fire                                                  (C) The Washington Museum

(B) the characteristics of volcanoes in                   (D) The National Air and Space Museum

the ring of fire                                            15. (A) to the White House

(C) the volcanoes of Hawaii                                  (B) to the Smithsonian

(D) Mauna Loa                                                       (C) to the mall

  1. (A) in Hawaii                                                          (D) to various other museums

(B) in the United States

(C) along the ring of fire

(D) within the ring of fire

Additional materials;

  1. Key words for questions no 1 through 5; laboratory assistant, Biological sciences, laboratory manual, accompany, course syllabus, exam grades.
  2. Key words for questions no 6 through 10; encircle, include, approximately, eruptions, caused by movement, Earth’s plates, rather than, mounds, flow, slope
  3. Where is PT. Tirta located?…….. PT Tirta is located on Jalan Thamrin Jakarta

Where is your campus located? ………………………………………………………………………..

Where is Mall Angrek located? ………………………………………………………………………..

Where is Metro TV situated? ………………………………..

Structure 3

 BE SURE THE SENTENCE HAS A SUBJECT AND A VERB

You know that a sentence in English should have a subject and a verb. The most common types of problems that you will encounter in structure questions on the TOEFL test have to do with subjects and verbs: perhaps the sentence is missing either the subject or the verb or both, or perhaps the sentence has an extra subject or verb.

———- was backed up for miles on the freeway.

(A) Yesterday

(B) In the morning

(C) Traffic

(D) Cars

In this example you should notice immediately that there is a verb was, but there is no subject. Answer (C) is the best answer because it contains the singular subject traffic that agrees with the singular verb was. Answer (A), yesterday, and answer (B), in the morning, are not subjects, so they are not correct. Although answer (D), cars, could be a subject, it is not correct because cars is plural and it does not agree with the singular verb was.

EXERCISE 1: Underline the subjects once and the verbs twice in each of the following sentences. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

  1. Last week went fishing for trout at the nearby mountain lake.
  2. A schedule of the day’s events can be obtained at the front desk.
  3. A job on the day shift or the night shift at the plant available.
  4. The new computer program has provides a variety of helpful applications.
  5. The box can be opened only with a special screwdriver.
  6. The assigned text for history class it contains more than twenty chapters.
  7. The papers in the wastebasket should be emptied into the trash can outside.
  8. Departure before dawn on a boat in the middle of the harbor.
  9. Yesterday found an interesting article on pollution.

10. The new machine is processes 50 percent more than the previous machine.

  USE COORDINATE CONNECTORS CORRECTLY

When you have two clauses in an English sentence, you must connect the two clauses correctly. One way to connect two clauses is to use and, but, or, so, or yet between the clauses.

  • Tom is singing, and Paul is dancing.
  • Tom is tall, but Paul is short.
  • Tom must write the letter, or Paul will do it.
  • Tom told a joke, so Paul laughed.
  • Tom is tired, yet he is not going to sleep.

In each of these examples, there are two clauses that are correctly joined with a coordinate conjunction and, but, or, so, or yet, and a comma (,).

A power failure occurred, ———– the lamps went out.

(A) then

(B) so

(C) later

(D) next

In this example you should notice quickly that there are two clauses, a power failure occurred and the lamps went out. This sentence needs a connector to join the two clauses. Then, later; and next are not connectors, so answers (A), (C), and (D) are not correct. The best answer is answer (B) because so can connect two clauses.

 Each of the following sentences contains more than one clause. Underline the subjects once and the verbs twice. Circle the connectors. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

  1. The software should be used on a laptop computer, and this computer is a laptop.
  2. The rain clouds can be seen in the distance, but no has fallen.
  3. They are trying to sell their house, it has been on the market for two months.
  4. So the quality of the print was not good, I changed the typewriter ribbon.
  5. The lifeguard will warn you about the riptides, or she may require you to get out of the water.
  6. You should have finished the work yesterday, yet is not close to being finished today.
  7. The phone rang again and again, so the receptionist was not able to get much work done.
  8. The missing wallet was found, but the cash and credit cards had been removed.
  9. Or you can drive your car for another 2,000 miles, you can get it fixed.
  10. The chemist was awarded the Nobel Prize, he flew to Europe to accept it
  11. USE ADVERB TIME AND CAUSE CONNECTORS CORRECTLY

Sentences with adverb clauses have two basic patterns in English. Study the clauses and connectors in the following sentences:

  • I will sign the check before you leave.
  • Before you leave, I will sign the check.

In each of these examples, there are two clauses: you leave and I will sign the check, and the clause you leave is an adverb time clause because it is introduced with the connector before. In the first example the connector before comes in the middle of the sentence, and no comma (,) is used.

In the second example the connector before comes at the beginning of the sentence. In this pattern, when the connector comes at the beginning of the sentence, a comma (,) is required in the middle of the sentence.

——— was late, I missed the appointment.

    1. I
    2. Because
    3. The train
    4. Since he

In this example you should recognize easily that there is a verb, was, that needs a subject. There is also another clause, I missed the appointment.

If you choose answer (A) or answer (C) , you will have a subject for the verb was, but you will not have a connector to join the two clauses. Because you need a connector to join two clauses, answers (A) and (C) are incorrect. Answer (B) is incorrect because there is no subject for the verb was. Answer (D) is the best answer because there is a subject, he, for the verb was, and there is a connector, since, to join the two clauses.

 

EXERCISE 7: Each of the following sentences contains more than one clause. Underline the subjects once and the verbs twice. Circle the connectors. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (1).

  1. Since the bank closes in less than an hour, the deposits need to be tallied immediately.
  2. Their backgrounds are thoroughly investigated before arc admitted to the organization.
  3. The citizens are becoming more and more incensed about traffic accidents whenever the accidents occur at that intersection.
  4. The ground had been prepared, the seedlings were carefully planted.
  5. We can start the conference now that all the participants have arrived.
  6. The building quite vulnerable to damage until the storm windows are installed.
  7. Once the address label for the package is typed, can he sent to the mail room.
  8. Because the recent change in work shifts was not posted, several workers missed their shifts.
  9. The mother is going to be quite upset with her son as long he misbehaves so much.
  10. Inasmuch as all the votes have not yet been counted the outcome of the election cannot be announced.

 

STRUCTURE

SKILL 8: USE OTHER ADVERB CONNECTORS CORRECTLY

Adverb clauses can express the ideas of time and cause, as you saw in Skill 7; adverb clauses can also express a number of other ideas, such as contrast, condition, manner, and place. Because these clauses are adverb clauses, they have the same structure as the time and cause clauses in Skill 7. Study the following examples:

  • I will leave at 7:00 if I am ready.
  • Although I was late, I managed to catch the train.

In each of these examples, there are two clauses that are correctly joined with adverb connectors. In the first sentence, the adverb condition connector if comes in the middle of the sentence. In the second sentence, the adverb contrast connector although comes at the beginning of the sentence, and a comma (,) is used in the middle of the sentence.

You will get a good grade on the exam provided —————

(A) studying

(B) study

(C) to study

(D) you study

In this example you should quickly notice the adverb condition connector provided. This connector comes in the middle of the sentence; because it is a connector, it must be followed by a subject and a verb. The best answer to this question is answer (D), which contains the subject and verb you study.

 

EXERCISE 8: Each of the following sentences contains more than one clause. Underline the subjects once and the verbs twice. Circle the connectors. Then indicate if the sentences are correct. (C) or incorrect (I).

  1. It is impossible to enter that program if you lack experience as a teacher.
  2. The commandant left strict, orders about the passes, several soldiers left the post anyway.
  3. No one is admitted to the academy unless he or she the education requirements.
  4. While most students turned the assignment in on time, a few asked for an extension.
  5. I will take you wherever need to go to complete the registration procedures.
  6. I will wait here in the airport with you whether the plane leaves on time or not.
  7. Providing the envelope is postmarked by this Friday, your application still acceptable.
  8. As the nurse already explained, all visitors must leave the hospital room now.
  9. This exam will be more difficult than usual in that it covers two chapters instead of one.
  10. Though snow had been falling all day long, everyone got to the church on time for the wedding.

 

SKILL 13: USE REDUCED ADJECTIVE CLAUSES CORRECTLY

Adjective clauses can appear in a reduced forth. In the reduced form, the adjective clause connector and the be-verb that directly follow it are omitted.

  • The woman who is waving to us is the tour guide.
  • The letter which was written last week arrived today.
  • The pitcher that is on the table is full of iced tea.

Each of these sentences may be used in the complete form or in the reduced form. In the reduced form the connector who, which, or that is omitted along with the be verb is or was.

If there is no be-verb in the adjective clause, it is still possible to have a reduced form. When there is no he-verb in the adjective clause, the connector is omitted and the verb is changed into the -ing form.

  • I don’t understand the article which appears in today’s paper.
  • —-> I don’t understand the article appearing in today’s paper.

In this example there is no be-verb in the adjective clause which appears in today’s paper, so the connector which is omitted and the main verb appears is changed to the -ing form appearing.

It should be noted that not all adjective clauses can appear in a reduced form. An adjective clause can appear in a reduced form only if the adjective clause connector is followed directly by a verb. In other words, an adjective clause can only be reduced if the connector is also a subject.

  • The woman that I just met is the tour guide.          (does not reduce)
  • The letter which you sent me arrived yesterday.    (does not reduce)

In these two examples the adjective clauses cannot be reduced because the adjective clause connectors that and which are not directly followed by verbs; that is directly followed by the subject I, and which is directly followed by the subject you.

A final point to note is that some adjective clauses are set off from the rest of the sentence with commas, and these adjective clauses can also be reduced. In addition, when an adjective clause is set off with commas, the reduced adjective clause can appear at the front of the sentence.

  • The White House, which is located in Washington, is the home of the president.
  • The White House, located in Washington, is the home of the president.
  • Located in Washington, the White House is the home of the president.

ü  The president, who is now preparing to give a speech, is meeting with his advisors.

ü  The president, now preparing to give a speech, is meeting with his advisors.

ü  Now preparing to give a speech, the president is meeting with his advisors.

In these two examples, the adjective clauses are set off from the rest of the sentence with commas, so each sentence can be structured in three different ways: (1.) with the complete clause, (2) with the reduced clause following the noun that it describes, and (3) with the reduced clause at the beginning of the sentence.

——– on several different television programs, the witness gave conflicting accounts of what had happened.

(A) He appeared

(B) Who appeared

(C) Appearing

(D) Appears

In this example, answer (A) is incorrect because there are two clauses, He appeared… and the witness gave…, and there is no connector to join them. Answer (B) is incorrect because an adjective clause such as who appeared… cannot appear at the beginning of a. sentence (unless it is in a reduced form). Answer (C) is the correct answer because it is the reduced form of the clause who appeared, and this reduced form can appear at the front of the sentence. Answer (D) is not the reduced form of a verb; it is merely a verb in the present tense; a verb such as appears needs a subject and a connector to be correct.

 

EXERCISE 13: Each of the following sentences contains an adjective clause, in a complete or reduced form. Underline the adjective clauses. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

    1. We will have to return the merchandise purchased yesterday at the Broadway.
    2. The children sat in the fancy restaurant found it difficult to behave.
    3. Serving a term of four years, the mayor of the town will face reelection next year.
    4. The brand new Cadillac, purchasing less than two weeks ago, was destroyed in the accident.
    5. The fans who supporting their team always come out to the games in large numbers.
    6. The suspect can be seen in the photographs were just released by the police.
    7. The food placing on the picnic table attracted a large number of flies.
    8. Impressed with everything she had heard about the course, Marie signed her children up for it.
    9. The passengers in the airport waiting room, heard the announcement of the canceled flight, groaned audibly.
    10. Dissatisfied with the service at the restaurant, the meal really was not enjoyable.

STRUCTURE

SKILL 14: USE REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSES CORRECTLY

Adverb clauses can also appear in a reduced form. In the reduced form, the adverb connector remains, but the subject and be verb are omitted.

  • Although he is rather unwell, the speaker will take part in the seminar.
  • When you are ready, you can begin your speech.

These two examples may be used in either the complete or reduced form. In the reduced form, the adverb connectors although and when remain; the subjects he and you as well as the be-verbs is and are are omitted.

If there is no be-verb in the adverb clause, it is still possible to have a reduced form. When there is no be-verb in the adverb clause, the subject is omitted and the main verb is changed into the –ing forrn.

  • Although he feels rather sick, the speaker will take part in the seminar.

è Although feeling rather sick, the speaker will take part in the seminar.

  • When you give your speech, you should speak Ioudly and distinctly.

è When giving your speech, you should speak Ioudly and distinctly.

In the first example the adverb clause although he feels rather sick does not include a be-verb; to reduce this clause, the subject he is omitted and the main verb feels is changed to feeling In the second example the adverb clause when you give your speech also does not include a he-verb; to reduce this clause, the subject you is omitted and the main verb give is changed to giving.

When ——     , you are free to leave.

(A) the finished report

(B) finished with the report

(C) the report

(D) is the report finished

In this example you should notice the adverb connector when, and you should know that this time word could be followed by either a complete clause or a reduced clause. Answers (A) and (C) contain the subjects the finished report and the report and no verb, so these answers are incorrect. In answer (D) the subject and verb are inverted, and this is not a question, so answer (D) is incorrect. The correct answer is answer (B); this answer is the reduced form of the clause when you are finished with the report.

It should be noted that not all adverb clauses can appear in a reduced form, and a number of adverb clauses can only be reduced if the verb is in the passive form.

  • Once you submit your thesis, you will graduate.    (active — does not reduce) 
  • Once  it is submitted, your thesis will be reviewed. (passive — does reduce)

In the first example, the adverb clause once you submit your thesis does not reduce because clauses introduced by once only reduce if the verb is passive, and the verb submit is active. In the second example, the adverb clause once it is submitted does reduce to once suinnitted because the clause is introduced by once and the verb is submitted is passive.

INVERT THE SUBJECT AND VERB WITH NEGATIVES

The subject and verb can also he inverted after certain negatives and related expressions. When negative expressions, such as no, not, or never; come at the beginning of a sentence, the subject and verb are inverted.

  1. Not once did I miss a question.
  2. Never has Mr. Jones taken a vacation.
  3. At no time can the woman talk on the telephone.

In the first example the negative expression not once causes the subject Ito come after the helping verb did.

In the second example the negative word never causes the subject Mr. Jones to come after the helping verb has.

In the last example the negative expression at no time causes the subject woman to come after the helping verb can.

Certain words in English, such as hardly, barely, scarcely, and only, act like negatives. If one of these words comes at the beginning of a sentence, the subject and verb are also inverted.

  • Hardly ever does he take time off.

(This means that he almost never takes time off.)

  • Only once did the manager issue overtime paychecks.

(This means that the manager almost never issued overtime paychecks.)

In the first example the “almost negative” expression hardly ever causes the subject he to come after the helping verb does.

In the second example the “almost negative” expression only once causes the subject manager to come after the helping verb did.

When a negative expression appears in front of a subject and verb in the middle of a sentence, the subject and verb are also inverted. This happens often with the negative words neither and nor.

  • I do not want to go, and neither does Tom.
  • The secretary is not attending the meeting, nor is her boss.

In the first example the negative neither causes the subject Tom to come after the helping verb does. In the second example the negative nor causes the subject boss to come after the verb is.

Only in extremely dangerous situations ——- stopped.

(A) will be the printing presses

(B) the printing presses will he

(C) that. the printing presses will be

(D) will the printing presses be

In this example you should notice that the sentence begins with the negative only, so an inverted subject and verb are needed. Answer. (D) contains a correctly inverted subject and verb, with the helping verb will, the subject printing presses, and the main verb be, so answer (D) is the best answer.