Category Archives: TOEFL 2

Reading Comprehension

A. Introduction

Reading Comprehension Section is the third and the last section of the three sections of toefl. As you have already known that every section has its own characteristics to complete and also needs certain strategies to complete owing to the handicaps. Generally,there are two main handicaps to complete this section, namely :; 1) limited time; and 2) new vocabulary. According to most test takers, they confess that they cannot finish this section because the available time (less than one hour) is not enough.

B. More detail explanation

Reading Comprehension Section consists of 50 questions derived from 5 to 7 reading passages. The topics of the passages are various such as : astronomy, geology, chemistry, medicine, engineering, sport, biography, economics, law, communication, literature, sociology, history, anthropology, architecture, psychology, art etc. There is no guarantee that the reading passages will be corresponding with test takers’ educational background. However, we never find two similar topics in a test. (Read your module p. 136 – The Passages)

C. Some Effective Strategies

1. We have to be accustomed to the question forms. ( module p. 137)

2. It is better you learn the questions first before reading the whole passage. By doing this, you can focus on certain parts or paragraphs related to the questions, because sometimes you choose the correct choice without mastering all the passage.

3. List the question form from the easiest then complete the 50 questions based on the list. Make priority to questions about closest in meaning, similar meaning, pronoun, and line. Question about topic, title, the purpose of the writer, unstated statement etc. you may do later. In other words, you need not need to start from question number 1 and you stop to number 50.

4. Remember, if you find new vocabulary, please do not get panic. Very often the next lines may give more explanation about it especially for technical term. Last but not least, add your vocabulary day after day and be familiar with various passages.

5. Learn your module pages 138 – 141

Reading Comprehension

READING COMPREHENSION

Reading comprehension is the third part of the Toefl Test. It consists of fifty questions, but some tests may be longer. Generally, a test taker only has fifty five minutes to complete this section. Topics of reading passage are varied, such as: American History, literature, art, architecture, geology, geography, sport, invention, politics, health, economics, law and astronomy, biography etc. Moreover, there are five to seven reading passages. As a matter of fact, it is rare to find  two similar TOPICS in the same test and there is no guarantee that all topics are related to  test taker’s educational background. That is why, many participants confess that they are unable to finish this section because of limited time. Knowing these handicaps, let you learn the following effective strategies.

Some effective strategies

1.     Skim the reading passage to determine the main idea, topic or title. Remember, main idea is commonly placed in the first sentence of every paragraph. some writers put it in the middle and a few writers prefer placing it in the last sentence to the first one. Topic, main idea or title is discussed in every paragraph. In other words, the most important information of the passage is so-called topic or title.

2.     It is possible that you will find some new vocabulary in every passage. However, you do not need to worry about it, because generally the next sentence will explain any certain terms. Moreover, a participant does not have to posses any particular knowlegde to comprehend the passages.

3.     Sometimes, it is more efficient to learn the questions first before reading the passage. Very often, we can answer certain questions correctly without understanding every detail in each passage.

4.     A test taker must be accustomed to the question forms, so that s/he will not get confused what the question about is.

 

 

CAUSATIVE

Causative “have”  or “get”

 

A.    Causative “have” or “get” means a sentence in which a subject asks the object to do the work. In other words, the subject does not do the work. Causative is often used in conversation.

For examples:

1.     We have the mechanic repair our car. From this sentence we may conclude that subject “we” does not repair the car, but it is the object “mechanic” does it. The above sentence has the same meaning with: We get the mechanic to repair our car or We ask the mechanic to repair our car.

2.     The family has someone cut the tree in the yard. This sentence has the same meaning with : The family gets someone to cut the three or The family asks someone to cut the three. From these three sentences we may conclude that the family does not cut the three but someone does  it.

B.     Remember, causative have does not apply infinitive to after the object.  (The manager has his secretary type the document) while causative get does (I get my first son to clean the room). Both causative “have” and “get” have the same meaning.

Take a look at the following sentences.

  1. The old mother has her daughter cook the meal.
  2. The professor has his assistant give tutorial to his 25 post-graduate students.
  3. They get me to turn of the light.
  4. She had me park her car yesterday in department store.
  5. They get me to  phone the suppliers
  6. The manager got me to place a big order two days ago.
  7. My father has me accompany the visitors to station.

C.     Causative “have” or “get” can be in active or in passive form.

Look at the following sentences.

  1. I have Bill kill the snake (Active sentence)
  2. I have the snake killed by Bill (Passive sentence)
  3. They get me to deposit money (Active sentence)
  4. They get money deposited by me (Passive sentence)
  5. She has the servant wash the dishes (Active sentences
  6. She has the dishes washed by the servant (Passive sentences)

D.    Determine which are active and passive sentences

  1. We will have the police arrest the thief.
  2. They will get someone to draw up money from the bank.
  3. She had her clothes ironed by her youngest sister last Friday.
  4.  He has his hair cut by a barbershop.
  5. We got the house built in 2011.
  6.  We have the paper turned in to the lecturer.
  7. They got someone to drive the family car.
  8. We have the door opened by the security.
  9. The doctor gets a nurse to fill the bottle.
  10. The professor has his book published.

 

E.     On Toefl test the passive form might be possible to appear.

1.     We have the topics ______________in seminar.

(A) Discuss

(B) Discussed

(C) Discussing

(D)To discuss

The correct answer is B because it is passive sentence. Passive sentence will use verb III (past participle)

2.      They get a popular actor ________the new products

(A) Promote

(B) To promote

(C) Promoted

(D)Promoting

The correct answer is B, because it is active sentence and using “get”.

3.     The police had the victims ____________last week.

(A) Identify

(B) To identify

(C) Identified

(D)Identifying

what is the correct answer?

4.     The president gets his staff ___________ demonstrators.

(A) Meet

(B) To meet

(C) Met

(D)Meeting

what is the correct answer?

F. Your turn.

1.     We must have the hotel ______________right now.

(A) Booking

(B) Book

(C) Booked

(D)To book

2.     The company gets the package ____________.

(A) Deliver

(B) To deliver

(C) Delivered

(D)delivering

3.     We have the servant____________ our guest.

(A) Serve

(B) To served

(C) Served

(D)To serve

4.     Bob has his secretary invite me to the ceremony. From this sentence we may conclude that:

(A) Bob invites me to attend the ceremony.

(B) Bob invite his secretary to the ceremony.

(C) The secretary invites Bob to the ceremony.

(D)I am not invited by Bob.

5.     The doctor gets his nurse to measure the temperature of my father. From this sentence we may conclude that:

(A) My father is sick.

(B) The doctor cannot measure the temperature.

(C) The nurse measures my father’s temperature.

(D)The nurse has the temperature measured.

6.     We have Susan feed the pets. From this sentence we may conclude that:

(A) Susan has pets

(B) Susan does not like pets

(C) Susan gives food to pets

(D)We are afraid of pets

 

Reading Comprehension 3 For Toefl 2 Section 58

Sometimes mail arrives at the post office, and it is impossible to deliver the mail. Perhaps there is an inadequate or illegible address and no return address. The post office cannot just throw this mail away, so this becomes “dead mail”. This “dead mail” is sent to one of the US. Postal Service’s dead mail offices in Atlanta, New York, Philadelphia, St. Paul, or San Francisco. Seventy-five million pieces of mail can end up in the dead mail office in one year.

The staff of the dead mail offices have a variety of ways to deal with all of these pierces of dead mail. First of all, they look for clues that can help the deliver the mail; they open packages in the hope that something inside will show where the package came from or is going to. Dead mail will also be listed on a computer so that people can call in and check to see if a missing item is there.

However, all of this mail cannot simply be stored forever; there is just too much of it. When a lot of dead mail has piled up, the dead mail offices hold public auctions. Every three months, the public is invited in and bins containing items found in dead mail packages are sold to the highest  bidder.

1.      The suitable title for the passage is,

(A)    The U.S. Postal Service.

(B)    Staff Responsibilities at the U.S. Postal Service.

(C)    Why is mail undeliverable.

(D)    Dead mail offices.

2.      The word “eligible” in line 2 is closest in meaning to which of the following?

(A)    Incomplete.

(B)    Missing.

(C)    Unreadable.

(D)    Incorrect.

3.      According to the passage, how many dead mail offices does the U.S. Postal Service have

(A)    3.

(B)    5.

(C)    15.

(D)    75.

4.      The word staff in line 6 is closest in meaning to

(A)    Workers.

(B)    Machines.

(C)    Rules.

(D)     Pieces of furniture.

5.      Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a way that post office staff members deal with dead mail?

(A)    They search for clues.

(B)     They throw dead mail away.

(C)     They open dead mail.

(D)    They list dead mail on a computer.

       Although the Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith appeared in 1776, it includes many of the ideas that economists still consider the foundation of private enterprise. The ideas put forth by Smith compose the basis of the philosophies of the school of thought called classical economics.

       According to Smith’s ideas, free competition and free trade are vital in fostering the growth of an economy. The role of government in the economy is to ensure the ability of companies to compete freely.

       Smith, who was himself a Scot, lived during the period of the revolutions in America and in France. During this epoch, the predominant political thought was a strong belief in freedom and independence in government. Smith’s economic ideas of free trade and competition are right in line with these political ideas.

1.       A “school” in line 3 is

(A)    a common belief

(B)     a college

(C)    a university

(D)    an educational institution

2.       Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word “free” in line 5?

(A)    Cheap

(B)     No cost

(C)    Uncontrolled

(D)    Democratic

3.       The word “line” in line 11 could best be replaced by

(A)    straightness

(B)     directness

(C)    file

(D)    agreement

 

 

 

6th Session of TOEFL 2

LISTENING COMPREHENSION SECTION

ESSENTIAL NOTES :

  1. Of the three parts of TOEFL, most test takers confess that Listening Comprehension is the most difficult one. Some possible reasons are: no repetition, no tape script, and unfamiliar with native.
  2. The listening section in general tests your ability to understand North  American English. You will listen to conversations and lectures and then answer multiple-choice questions about them. You will be asked to locate main ideas, supporting ideas, and understand inferences made in the conversations that you hear.
  3. There are three main parts of Listening Comprehension sections. They are: Listening Part A, Part B and Part C. each section has its own characteristics.
  • Characteristics of Listening Part A
  1. It is about short conversation which is generally between man and woman or vice versa.
  2. There will be a question by a narrator at the end of every short conversation.
  3. There are 30 short conversations.
  4. Topics are various.
  • Characteristics of Listening Part B
  1. It is about long conversation between man and woman.
  2. At the end of a long conversation, there will be four or five questions.
  3. Generally, there are two long conversations.
  4. Topics are various.
  • Characteristics of Listening Part C
  1. It is about talk or speech.
  2. At the end of every talk, there will be four or five questions.
  3. Generally, there are three talks.
  4. Topics are various.
  5. In order to reach the minimum score -450- as the passing grade for Toefl 2, a participants should  be able to  answer correctly at least 19 questions.

EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES

  1. You must be accustomed to the question forms such as:
  • What does the man mean?
  • What does the woman mean?
  • What does the man imply?
  • What does the woman imply?
  • Where does this conversation probably take place?
  • What does the man suggest?
  • What is inferred from the dialog?
  • Who is the man?
  • Who is the woman?
  • What will the man probably do next?
  • What does the woman say about……..?
  • What is the topic of the talk?
  • How long does the man stay ….?

2.  Learn the four possible answers first before listening to the conversations or talks. Having learned them you will will be able to estimate or to predict what the conversation is, based on the similar words or phrases in every answer. Another point is that you can predict the question form by the narrator as well.

Take a look at the following examples :

(A)    they are brothers

(B)     they are good friends

(C)     they are cousins

(D)   they are classmates

From these four possible answers, we may conclude that the conversation is about relationship. The key words are : brothers, friends, cousins and classmates.

(A) a pharmacist

(B) a dentist

(C) a teacher

(D) a business manager

From these four possible answers, we may predict that the question is about job or profession.

3. Find out the key words while listening the conversations. Very often the similar sound is not the correct answer.

 

 

 

1st Session

1st Session

 

I.                  Topics To Be covered

 

SATUAN ACARA PERKULIAHAN (SAP)

Semester Genap 2011/2012

 

 

Mata  Kuliah                  :        Toefl II (Kelas Karyawan)

Kode  Mata  Kuliah       :        IEU – 133

Kredit                             :        2 SKS  

Dosen                             :        TIM PAMU     

 

 

 

MATERI  KULIAH

 

 

SESSION

TOPICS

SUB TOPICS

 

I

 

Highlights Toefl 1I

Scoring System

Reading

-          Topics To Be covered

–          Rules Of PAMU

–          Synonym 

 

II

 

 Structure And Written Expression  

-          Conditional Type III

–          Paired Conjunction 

–          Modals

 

III

 

 Listening Part A and B

-          Opposite meaning

–          Content

 

IV

 

Reading Comprehension

 

-          Conclusion 

–          Referring questions

 

V

 

 Structure And Written Expression

-          Causative

–          Gerund  

–          Adverb

 

VI

 

Listening Part A, B, and C

-          Similar sound

–          Objects 

 

VII

 

 Review Materials and Pre-Test

-          Listening Comprehension

–          Structure And Written Expression

–          Reading Comprehension  

        

        VIII

 

UTS

 

 

 

IX

 

Reading Comprehension

 

-          Unstated questions

–          “Except” questions   

 

X

 

Structure And Written Expression

-          Clause

–          Reduced clause  

 

XI

 

Listening Part B and C

 

-          More detailed about topics

–          Negative expression

 

 

 

 

XII

 

Reading Comprehension

 

-          Closest meaning

–          Kinds of passage   

 

XIII

 

Structure And Written Expression

-          Eliptics : either, neither

–          Subjunctive

–          Repetition

 

 

XIV

 

Listening Part A, B and C

-          Unstated meaning

 

 

XV

 

Review Materials and Pre – Test  

-          Listening Comprehension

–          Structure And Written Expression

–          Reading Comprehension  

 

XVI

 

UAS

 

 

    

 

II.            PAMU’S RULES

 

1.75 % attendance for final exam,

2. Must take mid and final exam,

3. Not more than 30 minutes late,

4. Good performance and attitude,

5. Turn off your hand phone or any other kinds of communicative tools.

 

III.  Scoring and Grading System

 

1.      Kelulusan dengan Toefl Score  ≥ 450

2.      Toefl Score tertinggi antara UTS dan UAS

3.      Kehadiran dan Tugas tidak termasuk komponen Nilai Akhir.

 

KONVERSI TOEFL SCORE

         

               425 atau kurang……E

               426 – 449 ……………..D

               450 – 470 ……………..C

               471 – 485 ……………..B           

               486 atau lebih……….A

 

IV  WHAT IS A TOEFL?

 

 

TOEFL stands for Test of English as a Foreign Language.

TOEFL is a test to measure the level of English proficiency of non-native speakers of English. It is required primarily by English-language colleges and universities. Additionally, institutions such as government agencies or scholarship programs may require the test.

The test currently has the following sections:

  1. Listening Comprehension (multiple choice): To demonstrate heir ability to understand spoken English, examinees must listen to a tape and respond to various types of questions.
  2. Structure and Written Expression (multiple choice) : To demonstrate their ability to recognize grammatically correct English, examinees must choose the correct way to complete the sentences and must find errors in sentences.
  3. Reading Comprehension (multiple choice): To demonstrate their ability to understand written English, examinees must answer questions about the meanings of words and ideas in reading passages.
  4. Test of Written English (TWE) (written):  Examinees must write an easy essay on a given topic in thirty minutes to demonstrate their ability to produce correct and meaningful English. The Test of Written English (TWE) is not given with every administration of the TOEFL test.

 

The following chart outlines the probable format of a TOEFL test. (It should be noted that on certain occasions a longer version of the TOEFL test is given)

 

Sections of TOEFL Number of Question Time
Listening Comprehension 50 questions 35 minutes
Structure and Written Expression 40 questions 25 minutes
Reading Comprehension 50 questions 25 minutes
Test of Written English 1 essay topic 30 minutes

 

When the Test of Written English (TWE) is given, it is generally before the Listening Comprehension section.

 

 

V   Reading Comprehension

 

NOTES:

1.      Reading Comprehension consists of fifty questions (some tests may be longer).

2.      Generally, you only have fifty five minutes to complete this section.

3.      Topics of reading passage are varied, such as: American History, literature, art, architecture, geology, geography, economics, law and astronomy.

4.      Many participants are unable to finish this section because of time.

5.      Sometimes, it is more efficient to learn the questions first then read the passage.

 

SYNONYM ON READING PASSAGE

 

Reading Passage one

       For a century before the Eric Canal was built, there was much discussion among the general population of the Northeast as to the need for connecting the waterways of the Great Lakes with the Atlantic ocean. A project of such monumental proportions was not going to be undertaken and completed without a supreme amount of effort.

The man who was instrumental in accomplishing the feat of the Eric Canal, was DeWitt Clinton. As early as 1812, he was in the nation’s capital petitioning the federal government for financial assistance on the project, emphasizing what a boon to economy of the country the canal would be. His efforts with the federal government, however, were not successful.

In 1816, Clinton asked the New York State Legislature for the funding the canal and this time he did succeed. A canal commission was instituted, and Clinton himself was made the head of it. One year later, Clinton was elected governor of the state, and soon after, construction of the canal was started. The canal took eight years to complete, and Clinton was on the first barge to travel the length of the canal. The Seneca Chief, which departed from Buffalo on October 26, 1825 and arrived in New York City on November 4. Because of the success of the Eric Canal, numerous other canals were built in other parts of the country.

1.      The word ‘boon’ in the second paragraph is closest in meaning to,

(A)    Detriment.

(B)    Disadvantage.

(C)    Benefit.

(D)    cost .

 

Reading Passage  two

Carbon tetrachloride is a colorless and inflammable liquid that can be produced by combining carbon disulfide and chlorine. This compound is widely used i industry today, because of its effectiveness as a solvent as well as its use in the production of propellants.

Despite its widespread use in industry, Carbon tetrachloride has been banned for home use. In the past, Carbon tetrachloride was a common ingredient in cleaning compounds that were used throughout the home, but later on it was found to be dangerous; when heated , it changes into a poisonous gas that can cause severe illness and even death if it is inhaled. Because of this dangerous characteristics, the United States revoked permission for the home use of Carbon tetrachloride in 1970. The United States has taken similar action with various other chemical compounds.

 

1.      The word “widely” in line 2 can be replaced by;

(A)    Grandly.

(B)    Extensively.

(C)    Largely.

(D)    Hugely.

 

 

FINISH

CAUSATIVE

Causative “have”  or “get”

 

A.    Causative “have” or “get” means a sentence in which a subject asks the object to do the work. In other words, the subject does not do the work. Causative is often used in conversation.

For examples:

1.     We have the mechanic repair our car. From this sentence we may conclude that subject “we” does not repair the car, but it is the object “mechanic” does it. The above sentence has the same meaning with: We get the mechanic to repair our car or We ask the mechanic to repair our car.

2.     The family has someone cut the tree in the yard. This sentence has the same meaning with : The family gets someone to cut the three or The family asks someone to cut the three. From these three sentences we may conclude that the family does not cut the three but someone does  it.

B.     Remember, causative have does not apply infinitive to after the object.  (The manager has his secretary type the document) while causative get does (I get my first son to clean the room). Both causative “have” and “get” have the same meaning.

Take a look at the following sentences.

1.     The old mother has her daughter cook the meal.

2.     The professor has his assistant give tutorial to his 25 post-graduate students.

3.     They get me to turn of the light.

4.     She had me park her car yesterday in department store.

5.      They get me to  phone the suppliers

6.     The manager got me to place a big order two days ago.

7.     My father has me accompany the visitors to station.

C.     Causative “have” or “get” can be in active or in passive form.

Look at the following sentences.

1.     I have Bill kill the snake (Active sentence)

I have the snake killed by Bill (Passive sentence)

2.     They get me to deposit money (Active sentence)

They get money deposited by me (Passive sentence)

3.     She has the servant wash the dishes (Active sentences)

She has the dishes washed by the servant (Passive sentences)

D.    Determine which are active and passive sentences

1.     We will have the police arrest the thief.

2.     They will get someone to draw up money from the bank.

3.     She had her clothes ironed by her youngest sister last Friday.

4.     He has his hair cut by a barbershop.

5.     We got the house built in 2011.

6.     We have the paper turned in to the lecturer.

7.     They got someone to drive the family car.

8.     We have the door opened by the security.

9.     The doctor gets a nurse to fill the bottle.

10.            The professor has his book published.

 

E.     On Toefl test the passive form might be possible to appear.

1.     We have the topics ______________in seminar.

(A) Discuss

(B) Discussed

(C) Discussing

(D)To discuss

The correct answer is B because it is passive sentence. Passive sentence will use verb III (past participle)

2.      They get a popular actor ________the new products

(A) Promote

(B) To promote

(C) Promoted

(D)Promoting

The correct answer is B, because it is active sentence and using “get”.

3.     The police had the victims ____________last week.

(A) Identify

(B) To identify

(C) Identified

(D)Identifying

what is the correct answer?

4.     The president gets his staff ___________ demonstrators.

(A) Meet

(B) To meet

(C) Met

(D)Meeting

what is the correct answer?

F. Your turn.

1.     We must have the hotel ______________right now.

(A) Booking

(B) Book

(C) Booked

(D)To book

2.     The company gets the package ____________.

(A) Deliver

(B) To deliver

(C) Delivered

(D)delivering

3.     We have the servant____________ our guest.

(A) Serve

(B) To served

(C) Served

(D)To serve

4.     Bob has his secretary invite me to the ceremony. From this sentence we may conclude that:

(A) Bob invites me to attend the ceremony.

(B) Bob invite his secretary to the ceremony.

(C) The secretary invites Bob to the ceremony.

(D)I am not invited by Bob.

5.     The doctor gets his nurse to measure the temperature of my father. From this sentence we may conclude that:

(A) My father is sick.

(B) The doctor cannot measure the temperature.

(C) The nurse measures my father’s temperature.

(D)The nurse has the temperature measured.

6.     We have Susan feed the pets. From this sentence we may conclude that:

(A) Susan has pets

(B) Susan does not like pets

(C) Susan gives food to pets

(D)We are afraid of pets

7.     Although Martin is a good swimmer, he had someone to take his

(A)                                (B)                   (C)

youngest son out of the river.

(D)

 

8.     Alice gets his mother paid his tuition in this semester

(A)                        (B)  (C)   (D)

9.     Many passengers get the porters bring their heavy travel bags at

(A)                       (B)                   (C)                                 (D)

Cengkareng Airport.